Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures

Y. Li, C. Liang, C. W. Slemenda, R. Ji, S. Sun, J. Cao, C. L. Emsley, F. Ma, Y. Wu, P. Ying, Y. Zhang, Sujuan Gao, W. Zhang, Barry Katz, S. Niu, S. Cao, Jr Johnston C.C.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

63 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Findings on the risk of bone fractures associated with long-term fluoride exposure from drinking water have been contradictory. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of bone fracture, including hip fracture, in six Chinese populations with water fluoride concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.97 parts per million (ppm). A total of 8266 male and female subjects ≥50 years of age were enrolled. Parameters evaluated included fluoride exposure, prevalence of bone fractures, demographics, medical history, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. The results confirmed that drinking water was the only major source of fluoride exposure in the study populations. A U-shaped pattern was detected for the relationship between the prevalence of bone fracture and water fluoride level. The prevalence of overall bone fracture was lowest in the population of 1.00-1.06 ppm fluoride in drinking water, which was significantly lower (p <0.05) than that of the groups exposed to water fluoride levels ≥4.32 and ≤0.34 ppm. The prevalence of hip fractures was highest in the group with the highest water fluoride (4.32-7.97 ppm). The value is significantly higher than the population with 1.00-1.06 ppm water fluoride, which had the lowest prevalence rate. It is concluded that long-term fluoride exposure from drinking water containing ≥4.32 ppm increases the risk of overall fractures as well as hip fractures. Water fluoride levels at 1.00-1.06 ppm decrease the risk of overall fractures relative to negligible fluoride in water; however, there does not appear to be similar protective benefits for the risk of hip fractures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)932-939
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Volume16
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2001

Fingerprint

Bone Fractures
Fluorides
Drinking Water
Hip Fractures
Water
Population
Alcohol Drinking
Smoking
Demography

Keywords

  • Bone
  • Fluoridation
  • Fluoride
  • Fracture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures. / Li, Y.; Liang, C.; Slemenda, C. W.; Ji, R.; Sun, S.; Cao, J.; Emsley, C. L.; Ma, F.; Wu, Y.; Ying, P.; Zhang, Y.; Gao, Sujuan; Zhang, W.; Katz, Barry; Niu, S.; Cao, S.; Johnston C.C., Jr.

In: Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2001, p. 932-939.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Li, Y, Liang, C, Slemenda, CW, Ji, R, Sun, S, Cao, J, Emsley, CL, Ma, F, Wu, Y, Ying, P, Zhang, Y, Gao, S, Zhang, W, Katz, B, Niu, S, Cao, S & Johnston C.C., J 2001, 'Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures', Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 932-939.
Li, Y. ; Liang, C. ; Slemenda, C. W. ; Ji, R. ; Sun, S. ; Cao, J. ; Emsley, C. L. ; Ma, F. ; Wu, Y. ; Ying, P. ; Zhang, Y. ; Gao, Sujuan ; Zhang, W. ; Katz, Barry ; Niu, S. ; Cao, S. ; Johnston C.C., Jr. / Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures. In: Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2001 ; Vol. 16, No. 5. pp. 932-939.
@article{c0cb4743b2ac4ca4a242746d9f8368fb,
title = "Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures",
abstract = "Findings on the risk of bone fractures associated with long-term fluoride exposure from drinking water have been contradictory. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of bone fracture, including hip fracture, in six Chinese populations with water fluoride concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.97 parts per million (ppm). A total of 8266 male and female subjects ≥50 years of age were enrolled. Parameters evaluated included fluoride exposure, prevalence of bone fractures, demographics, medical history, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. The results confirmed that drinking water was the only major source of fluoride exposure in the study populations. A U-shaped pattern was detected for the relationship between the prevalence of bone fracture and water fluoride level. The prevalence of overall bone fracture was lowest in the population of 1.00-1.06 ppm fluoride in drinking water, which was significantly lower (p <0.05) than that of the groups exposed to water fluoride levels ≥4.32 and ≤0.34 ppm. The prevalence of hip fractures was highest in the group with the highest water fluoride (4.32-7.97 ppm). The value is significantly higher than the population with 1.00-1.06 ppm water fluoride, which had the lowest prevalence rate. It is concluded that long-term fluoride exposure from drinking water containing ≥4.32 ppm increases the risk of overall fractures as well as hip fractures. Water fluoride levels at 1.00-1.06 ppm decrease the risk of overall fractures relative to negligible fluoride in water; however, there does not appear to be similar protective benefits for the risk of hip fractures.",
keywords = "Bone, Fluoridation, Fluoride, Fracture",
author = "Y. Li and C. Liang and Slemenda, {C. W.} and R. Ji and S. Sun and J. Cao and Emsley, {C. L.} and F. Ma and Y. Wu and P. Ying and Y. Zhang and Sujuan Gao and W. Zhang and Barry Katz and S. Niu and S. Cao and {Johnston C.C.}, Jr",
year = "2001",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "16",
pages = "932--939",
journal = "Journal of Bone and Mineral Research",
issn = "0884-0431",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures

AU - Li, Y.

AU - Liang, C.

AU - Slemenda, C. W.

AU - Ji, R.

AU - Sun, S.

AU - Cao, J.

AU - Emsley, C. L.

AU - Ma, F.

AU - Wu, Y.

AU - Ying, P.

AU - Zhang, Y.

AU - Gao, Sujuan

AU - Zhang, W.

AU - Katz, Barry

AU - Niu, S.

AU - Cao, S.

AU - Johnston C.C., Jr

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Findings on the risk of bone fractures associated with long-term fluoride exposure from drinking water have been contradictory. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of bone fracture, including hip fracture, in six Chinese populations with water fluoride concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.97 parts per million (ppm). A total of 8266 male and female subjects ≥50 years of age were enrolled. Parameters evaluated included fluoride exposure, prevalence of bone fractures, demographics, medical history, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. The results confirmed that drinking water was the only major source of fluoride exposure in the study populations. A U-shaped pattern was detected for the relationship between the prevalence of bone fracture and water fluoride level. The prevalence of overall bone fracture was lowest in the population of 1.00-1.06 ppm fluoride in drinking water, which was significantly lower (p <0.05) than that of the groups exposed to water fluoride levels ≥4.32 and ≤0.34 ppm. The prevalence of hip fractures was highest in the group with the highest water fluoride (4.32-7.97 ppm). The value is significantly higher than the population with 1.00-1.06 ppm water fluoride, which had the lowest prevalence rate. It is concluded that long-term fluoride exposure from drinking water containing ≥4.32 ppm increases the risk of overall fractures as well as hip fractures. Water fluoride levels at 1.00-1.06 ppm decrease the risk of overall fractures relative to negligible fluoride in water; however, there does not appear to be similar protective benefits for the risk of hip fractures.

AB - Findings on the risk of bone fractures associated with long-term fluoride exposure from drinking water have been contradictory. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of bone fracture, including hip fracture, in six Chinese populations with water fluoride concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.97 parts per million (ppm). A total of 8266 male and female subjects ≥50 years of age were enrolled. Parameters evaluated included fluoride exposure, prevalence of bone fractures, demographics, medical history, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. The results confirmed that drinking water was the only major source of fluoride exposure in the study populations. A U-shaped pattern was detected for the relationship between the prevalence of bone fracture and water fluoride level. The prevalence of overall bone fracture was lowest in the population of 1.00-1.06 ppm fluoride in drinking water, which was significantly lower (p <0.05) than that of the groups exposed to water fluoride levels ≥4.32 and ≤0.34 ppm. The prevalence of hip fractures was highest in the group with the highest water fluoride (4.32-7.97 ppm). The value is significantly higher than the population with 1.00-1.06 ppm water fluoride, which had the lowest prevalence rate. It is concluded that long-term fluoride exposure from drinking water containing ≥4.32 ppm increases the risk of overall fractures as well as hip fractures. Water fluoride levels at 1.00-1.06 ppm decrease the risk of overall fractures relative to negligible fluoride in water; however, there does not appear to be similar protective benefits for the risk of hip fractures.

KW - Bone

KW - Fluoridation

KW - Fluoride

KW - Fracture

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035058904&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035058904&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 16

SP - 932

EP - 939

JO - Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

JF - Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

SN - 0884-0431

IS - 5

ER -