Effect of Mica Reinforcement on the Flexural Strength and Microhardness of Polymethyl Methacrylate Denture Resin

Mohamed M. Mansour, Warren C. Wagner, T.M. Gabriel Chu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Conventional denture base polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is low in strength, soft, and brittle on impact. Improvements in the mechanical properties of denture base materials have been sought by adding different reinforcing phases to the PMMA matrix. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of mica reinforcement on the mechanical properties, flexural strength, and microhardness of PMMA denture base resin. Materials and Methods: Wet ground muscovite mica and Lucitone 199 original shade denture base resin were used. Two micas were tested: W200 and P66 with average particle sizes (d50) of 131 μm and 30 μm, respectively. The mica was silane treated in a solution of 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, ethanol, and water, and then dried. The specimens were fabricated using the denture base resin manufacturer's instructions with a powder: liquid ratio of 21 g/10 ml and a mixing time of 30 seconds. Five treatment groups were produced with differing amounts of mica added to the PMMA denture base resin: (A) control group with 0 vol% mica, (B) 10 vol% W200 mica, (C) 20 vol% W200 mica, (D) 10 vol% P66 mica, (E) 20 vol% P66 mica. The mica replaced equal volumes of the PMMA powder component to minimize changes in viscosity. The three-point bending flexural strength specimens were 70 × 11 × 3 mm3. Seven specimens were prepared for each treatment group. The hardness specimens were prepared from the ends of the three-point bend specimens after they were broken (N = 7). After deflasking, the specimens were polished with 600 grit silicon carbide paper to achieve smooth surfaces. A standard three-point bending jig with a span length of 50 mm was attached to an Instron universal testing machine. The specimens were placed on the jig, and loading was carried out using a 1 mm/min crosshead speed until failure. Microhardness was measured using a Clark microhardness tester with a Knoop indenter. The load was set to 200 g and the dwell time to 15 seconds. ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analyses (Alpha = 0.05). Results: The flexural strength of the control group was between 77% and 94% higher than all the mica-containing groups (p≤ 0.05). No significant differences were found within the four mica groups. Microhardnesses of the 20% mica groups (both fine and coarse) were 33% and 26% higher than the control (p≤ 0.05). The 10% mica groups had higher hardness than the control group, but the increase was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Mica additions to denture PMMA reduced flexural strength; however, with the specimens containing highest mica concentrations (20%), microhardness significantly increased.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-183
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Prosthodontics
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2013

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Dentures
Polymethyl Methacrylate
Denture Bases
mica
Hardness
Powders
Control Groups
Silanes
Particle Size
Viscosity

Keywords

  • Acrylic, microhardness
  • Composite
  • Denture
  • Mica introduction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

Effect of Mica Reinforcement on the Flexural Strength and Microhardness of Polymethyl Methacrylate Denture Resin. / Mansour, Mohamed M.; Wagner, Warren C.; Chu, T.M. Gabriel.

In: Journal of Prosthodontics, Vol. 22, No. 3, 04.2013, p. 179-183.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Effect of Mica Reinforcement on the Flexural Strength and Microhardness of Polymethyl Methacrylate Denture Resin",
abstract = "Purpose: Conventional denture base polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is low in strength, soft, and brittle on impact. Improvements in the mechanical properties of denture base materials have been sought by adding different reinforcing phases to the PMMA matrix. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of mica reinforcement on the mechanical properties, flexural strength, and microhardness of PMMA denture base resin. Materials and Methods: Wet ground muscovite mica and Lucitone 199 original shade denture base resin were used. Two micas were tested: W200 and P66 with average particle sizes (d50) of 131 μm and 30 μm, respectively. The mica was silane treated in a solution of 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, ethanol, and water, and then dried. The specimens were fabricated using the denture base resin manufacturer's instructions with a powder: liquid ratio of 21 g/10 ml and a mixing time of 30 seconds. Five treatment groups were produced with differing amounts of mica added to the PMMA denture base resin: (A) control group with 0 vol{\%} mica, (B) 10 vol{\%} W200 mica, (C) 20 vol{\%} W200 mica, (D) 10 vol{\%} P66 mica, (E) 20 vol{\%} P66 mica. The mica replaced equal volumes of the PMMA powder component to minimize changes in viscosity. The three-point bending flexural strength specimens were 70 × 11 × 3 mm3. Seven specimens were prepared for each treatment group. The hardness specimens were prepared from the ends of the three-point bend specimens after they were broken (N = 7). After deflasking, the specimens were polished with 600 grit silicon carbide paper to achieve smooth surfaces. A standard three-point bending jig with a span length of 50 mm was attached to an Instron universal testing machine. The specimens were placed on the jig, and loading was carried out using a 1 mm/min crosshead speed until failure. Microhardness was measured using a Clark microhardness tester with a Knoop indenter. The load was set to 200 g and the dwell time to 15 seconds. ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analyses (Alpha = 0.05). Results: The flexural strength of the control group was between 77{\%} and 94{\%} higher than all the mica-containing groups (p≤ 0.05). No significant differences were found within the four mica groups. Microhardnesses of the 20{\%} mica groups (both fine and coarse) were 33{\%} and 26{\%} higher than the control (p≤ 0.05). The 10{\%} mica groups had higher hardness than the control group, but the increase was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Mica additions to denture PMMA reduced flexural strength; however, with the specimens containing highest mica concentrations (20{\%}), microhardness significantly increased.",
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N2 - Purpose: Conventional denture base polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is low in strength, soft, and brittle on impact. Improvements in the mechanical properties of denture base materials have been sought by adding different reinforcing phases to the PMMA matrix. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of mica reinforcement on the mechanical properties, flexural strength, and microhardness of PMMA denture base resin. Materials and Methods: Wet ground muscovite mica and Lucitone 199 original shade denture base resin were used. Two micas were tested: W200 and P66 with average particle sizes (d50) of 131 μm and 30 μm, respectively. The mica was silane treated in a solution of 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, ethanol, and water, and then dried. The specimens were fabricated using the denture base resin manufacturer's instructions with a powder: liquid ratio of 21 g/10 ml and a mixing time of 30 seconds. Five treatment groups were produced with differing amounts of mica added to the PMMA denture base resin: (A) control group with 0 vol% mica, (B) 10 vol% W200 mica, (C) 20 vol% W200 mica, (D) 10 vol% P66 mica, (E) 20 vol% P66 mica. The mica replaced equal volumes of the PMMA powder component to minimize changes in viscosity. The three-point bending flexural strength specimens were 70 × 11 × 3 mm3. Seven specimens were prepared for each treatment group. The hardness specimens were prepared from the ends of the three-point bend specimens after they were broken (N = 7). After deflasking, the specimens were polished with 600 grit silicon carbide paper to achieve smooth surfaces. A standard three-point bending jig with a span length of 50 mm was attached to an Instron universal testing machine. The specimens were placed on the jig, and loading was carried out using a 1 mm/min crosshead speed until failure. Microhardness was measured using a Clark microhardness tester with a Knoop indenter. The load was set to 200 g and the dwell time to 15 seconds. ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analyses (Alpha = 0.05). Results: The flexural strength of the control group was between 77% and 94% higher than all the mica-containing groups (p≤ 0.05). No significant differences were found within the four mica groups. Microhardnesses of the 20% mica groups (both fine and coarse) were 33% and 26% higher than the control (p≤ 0.05). The 10% mica groups had higher hardness than the control group, but the increase was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Mica additions to denture PMMA reduced flexural strength; however, with the specimens containing highest mica concentrations (20%), microhardness significantly increased.

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KW - Acrylic, microhardness

KW - Composite

KW - Denture

KW - Mica introduction

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