Effect of shock wave number on renal oxidative stress and inflammation

Daniel L. Clark, Bret A. Connors, Andrew P. Evan, Rajash K. Handa, Sujuan Gao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE To determine if the magnitude of the acute injury response to shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) depends on the number of SWs delivered to the kidney, as SWL causes acute renal oxidative stress and inflammation which are most severe in the portion of the kidney within the focal zone of the lithotripter. MATERIALS AND METHODS Pigs (7-8 weeks old) received 500, 1000 or 2000 SWs at 24 kV from a lithotripter to the lower pole calyx of one kidney. At 4 h after treatment the kidneys were removed, and samples of cortex and medulla were frozen for analysis of the cytokine, interleukin-6, and for the stress response protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Urine samples taken before and after treatment were analysed for the inflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor-α. For comparison, we included previously published cytokine data from pigs exposed to sham treatment. RESULTS Treatment with either 1000 or 2000 SWs caused a significant induction of HO-1 in the renal medulla within the focal zone of the lithotripter (F2, 1000 SWs, P < 0.05; 2000 SWs, P < 0.001). Interleukin-6 was also significantly elevated in the renal medulla of the pigs that received either 1000 or 2000 SWs (P < 0.05 and <0.001, respectively). Linear dose-response modelling showed a significant correlation between the HO-1 and interleukin-6 responses with SW dose (P < 0.001). Urinary excretion of tumour necrosis factor-α from the lithotripsy-treated kidney increased only for pigs that received 2000 SWs (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The magnitude of renal oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the medulla increased with the number of SWs. However, it is not known if the HO-1 response is beneficial or deleterious; determining that will inform us whether SWL-induced renal injury can be assessed by quantifying markers of oxidative stress and inflammation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)318-322
Number of pages5
JournalBJU International
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011


  • heme oxygenase
  • inflammation
  • kidney
  • oxidative stress
  • shock wave lithotripsy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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