Leukemic cell growth in the marrow microenvironment may be modulated by stromal cell products, including stimulatory growth factors and the inhibitory regulator prostaglandin E. The production of both of these stromal cell products induced by cytokine mediators appears to be closely linked. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is an intracellular second messenger that inhibits myeloid cell proliferation and is produced in myeloid leukemia cells on stimulation of adenylate cyclase enzyme by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). Cells expressing the product of an RAS oncogene have been observed to display diminished hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase of membranes. If this observation were applicable to myeloid cells, a potentially important mode for leukemia cells expressing p21 RAS to escape inhibitory regulation within the hematopoietic microenvironment would be identified. We studied an interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent myeloid cell line, NFS/N1.H7, and a derivative line transfected with H-RAS codon 12 (T24) oncogene, H7 Neo Ras.F3, for inhibition of proliferation by PGE1, 1 μM, alone or in combination with pertussis toxin, which inactivates Gi, an inhibitory regulatory guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein of adenylate cyclase. NFS/N1.H7 cells were inhibited in interleukin-3-dependent proliferation (dose range, IL-3 10 to 100 U/mL) by PGE1 79 ± 11%, by pertussis toxin 51 ± 9%, and by the combination 92 ± 2%, whereas H7 Neo RAS.F3 was inhibited 51 ± 7%, 6 ± 2%, or 58 ± 9% by PGE1, pertussis toxin, and the combination, respectively. These differences in capacity for inhibition by adenylate cyclase agonists between RAS-transfectant cells (lower inhibition) versus parent cells (greater inhibition) were all highly significant (P < .0005). Intracellular cAMP formed on PGE1 stimulation of pertussis-intoxicated cells was 150% lower in RAS-transfectant cells than in parent cells. The adenylate cyclase activity of membranes from pertussis-intoxicated RAS-transfected cells was 1.5 to two times lower than that of pertussis-intoxicated parent-cell membranes on Mg2+-dependent activation by hormone and/or guanine nucleotide. However, very similar adenylate cyclase activity was observed in oncogenic p21 RAS-containing membranes compared with parental membranes under conditions of direct activation by 4 mM Mn2+ and forskolin, where inhibitory or stimulatory G-protein influences are minimal. These studies showed diminished adenylate cyclase activity in mutant RAS-bearing myeloid-cell membranes compared with parent-cell membranes independent of the pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein, Gi. This diminished adenylate cyclase activity of membranes is linked to diminished inhibition of cellular response to IL-3 by adenylate cyclase agonists of the p21 RAS-containing cells compared with parental cells and appears to be an important effector function of oncogenic p21 RAS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology