Effects of dietary intake and genetic factors on hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter in gastric cancer

Hongmei Nan, Young Jin Song, Hyo Yung Yun, Joo Seung Park, Heon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Aim: Hypermethylation of the promoter of the hMLH1 gene, which plays an important role in mismatch repair during DNA replication, occurs in more than 30% of human gastric cancer tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of environmental factors, genetic polymorphisms of major metabolic enzymes, and microsatellite instability on hypermethylation of the promoter of the hMLH1 gene in gastric cancer. Methods: Data were obtained from a hospital-based, case-control study of gastric cancer. One hundred and ten gastric cancer patients and 220 age- and sex-matched control patients completed a structured questionnaire regarding their exposure to environmental risk factors. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter, polymorphisms of the GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, ALDH2 and L-myc genes, microsatellite instability and mutations of p53 and Ki-ras genes were investigated. Results: Both smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with a higher risk of gastric cancer with hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter. High intake of vegetables and low intake of potato were associated with increased likelihood of gastric cancer with hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter. Genetic polymorphisms of the GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, ALDH2, and L-myc genes were not significantly associated with the risk of gastric cancer either with or without hypermethylation in the promoter of the hMLH1 gene. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 promoter was significantly associated with microsatellite instability (MSI): 10 of the 14 (71.4%) MSI-positive tumors showed hypermethylation, whereas 28 of 94 (29.8%) the MSI-negative tumors were hypermethylated at the hMLH1 promoter region. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter was significantly inversely correlated with mutation of the p53 gene. Conclusion: These results suggest that cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption may influence the development of hMLH1-positive gastric cancer. Most dietary factors and polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, ALDH2, and L-myc genes are not independent risk factors for gastric cancer with hypermethylation of the hMLH1 promoter. These data also suggest that there could be two or more different molecular pathways in the development of gastric cancer, perhaps involving tumor suppression mechanisms or DNA mismatch repair.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3834-3841
Number of pages8
JournalWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume11
Issue number25
StatePublished - Jul 7 2005
Externally publishedYes

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Stomach Neoplasms
Microsatellite Instability
Genes
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
myc Genes
DNA Mismatch Repair
Genetic Polymorphisms
Alcohol Drinking
Smoking
Neoplasms
Mutation
ras Genes
p53 Genes
Environmental Exposure
Solanum tuberosum
DNA Replication
Genetic Promoter Regions
Vegetables
Case-Control Studies

Keywords

  • Environmental carcinogens
  • Gastric cancer
  • Genetic polymorphisms
  • hMTLH1
  • Ki-ras
  • Microsatellite instability
  • p53

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Effects of dietary intake and genetic factors on hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter in gastric cancer. / Nan, Hongmei; Song, Young Jin; Yun, Hyo Yung; Park, Joo Seung; Kim, Heon.

In: World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 11, No. 25, 07.07.2005, p. 3834-3841.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nan, Hongmei ; Song, Young Jin ; Yun, Hyo Yung ; Park, Joo Seung ; Kim, Heon. / Effects of dietary intake and genetic factors on hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter in gastric cancer. In: World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2005 ; Vol. 11, No. 25. pp. 3834-3841.
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abstract = "Aim: Hypermethylation of the promoter of the hMLH1 gene, which plays an important role in mismatch repair during DNA replication, occurs in more than 30{\%} of human gastric cancer tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of environmental factors, genetic polymorphisms of major metabolic enzymes, and microsatellite instability on hypermethylation of the promoter of the hMLH1 gene in gastric cancer. Methods: Data were obtained from a hospital-based, case-control study of gastric cancer. One hundred and ten gastric cancer patients and 220 age- and sex-matched control patients completed a structured questionnaire regarding their exposure to environmental risk factors. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter, polymorphisms of the GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, ALDH2 and L-myc genes, microsatellite instability and mutations of p53 and Ki-ras genes were investigated. Results: Both smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with a higher risk of gastric cancer with hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter. High intake of vegetables and low intake of potato were associated with increased likelihood of gastric cancer with hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter. Genetic polymorphisms of the GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, ALDH2, and L-myc genes were not significantly associated with the risk of gastric cancer either with or without hypermethylation in the promoter of the hMLH1 gene. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 promoter was significantly associated with microsatellite instability (MSI): 10 of the 14 (71.4{\%}) MSI-positive tumors showed hypermethylation, whereas 28 of 94 (29.8{\%}) the MSI-negative tumors were hypermethylated at the hMLH1 promoter region. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter was significantly inversely correlated with mutation of the p53 gene. Conclusion: These results suggest that cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption may influence the development of hMLH1-positive gastric cancer. Most dietary factors and polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, ALDH2, and L-myc genes are not independent risk factors for gastric cancer with hypermethylation of the hMLH1 promoter. These data also suggest that there could be two or more different molecular pathways in the development of gastric cancer, perhaps involving tumor suppression mechanisms or DNA mismatch repair.",
keywords = "Environmental carcinogens, Gastric cancer, Genetic polymorphisms, hMTLH1, Ki-ras, Microsatellite instability, p53",
author = "Hongmei Nan and Song, {Young Jin} and Yun, {Hyo Yung} and Park, {Joo Seung} and Heon Kim",
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AU - Nan, Hongmei

AU - Song, Young Jin

AU - Yun, Hyo Yung

AU - Park, Joo Seung

AU - Kim, Heon

PY - 2005/7/7

Y1 - 2005/7/7

N2 - Aim: Hypermethylation of the promoter of the hMLH1 gene, which plays an important role in mismatch repair during DNA replication, occurs in more than 30% of human gastric cancer tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of environmental factors, genetic polymorphisms of major metabolic enzymes, and microsatellite instability on hypermethylation of the promoter of the hMLH1 gene in gastric cancer. Methods: Data were obtained from a hospital-based, case-control study of gastric cancer. One hundred and ten gastric cancer patients and 220 age- and sex-matched control patients completed a structured questionnaire regarding their exposure to environmental risk factors. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter, polymorphisms of the GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, ALDH2 and L-myc genes, microsatellite instability and mutations of p53 and Ki-ras genes were investigated. Results: Both smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with a higher risk of gastric cancer with hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter. High intake of vegetables and low intake of potato were associated with increased likelihood of gastric cancer with hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter. Genetic polymorphisms of the GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, ALDH2, and L-myc genes were not significantly associated with the risk of gastric cancer either with or without hypermethylation in the promoter of the hMLH1 gene. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 promoter was significantly associated with microsatellite instability (MSI): 10 of the 14 (71.4%) MSI-positive tumors showed hypermethylation, whereas 28 of 94 (29.8%) the MSI-negative tumors were hypermethylated at the hMLH1 promoter region. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter was significantly inversely correlated with mutation of the p53 gene. Conclusion: These results suggest that cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption may influence the development of hMLH1-positive gastric cancer. Most dietary factors and polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, ALDH2, and L-myc genes are not independent risk factors for gastric cancer with hypermethylation of the hMLH1 promoter. These data also suggest that there could be two or more different molecular pathways in the development of gastric cancer, perhaps involving tumor suppression mechanisms or DNA mismatch repair.

AB - Aim: Hypermethylation of the promoter of the hMLH1 gene, which plays an important role in mismatch repair during DNA replication, occurs in more than 30% of human gastric cancer tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of environmental factors, genetic polymorphisms of major metabolic enzymes, and microsatellite instability on hypermethylation of the promoter of the hMLH1 gene in gastric cancer. Methods: Data were obtained from a hospital-based, case-control study of gastric cancer. One hundred and ten gastric cancer patients and 220 age- and sex-matched control patients completed a structured questionnaire regarding their exposure to environmental risk factors. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter, polymorphisms of the GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, ALDH2 and L-myc genes, microsatellite instability and mutations of p53 and Ki-ras genes were investigated. Results: Both smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with a higher risk of gastric cancer with hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter. High intake of vegetables and low intake of potato were associated with increased likelihood of gastric cancer with hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter. Genetic polymorphisms of the GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, ALDH2, and L-myc genes were not significantly associated with the risk of gastric cancer either with or without hypermethylation in the promoter of the hMLH1 gene. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 promoter was significantly associated with microsatellite instability (MSI): 10 of the 14 (71.4%) MSI-positive tumors showed hypermethylation, whereas 28 of 94 (29.8%) the MSI-negative tumors were hypermethylated at the hMLH1 promoter region. Hypermethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter was significantly inversely correlated with mutation of the p53 gene. Conclusion: These results suggest that cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption may influence the development of hMLH1-positive gastric cancer. Most dietary factors and polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, ALDH2, and L-myc genes are not independent risk factors for gastric cancer with hypermethylation of the hMLH1 promoter. These data also suggest that there could be two or more different molecular pathways in the development of gastric cancer, perhaps involving tumor suppression mechanisms or DNA mismatch repair.

KW - Environmental carcinogens

KW - Gastric cancer

KW - Genetic polymorphisms

KW - hMTLH1

KW - Ki-ras

KW - Microsatellite instability

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