Effects of exercise on intraocular pressure and ocular blood flow

A review

David Risner, Rita Ehrlich, Nisha S. Kheradiya, Brent Siesky, Lynne McCranor, Alon Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Glaucoma is a disease characterized by progressive optic neuropathy resulting in retinal ganglion cell death, which affects approximately 68 million people worldwide. Risk factors include intraocular pressure (IOP), genetics, race, age, and vascular factors. Exercise is known to affect IOP and systemic cardiovascular factors and, therefore, may affect glaucoma pathophysiology. This review discusses the results of articles relevant to glaucoma, IOP, ocular blood flow (OBF), and exercise. Isometric and dynamic exercises have been studied with respect to effects on IOP and OBF. Isometric exercise results in an acute decrease in IOP, which correlates with hypocapnia. Dynamic exercise results in a more pronounced but also short duration decrease in IOP. Physical fitness is associated with lower baseline IOP but diminished acute IOP-lowering response to exercise. Upon cessation of exercise, values return to pretrained levels within 1 month. In glaucoma patients, these IOP-lowering effects are greater than in healthy subjects. In healthy subjects, OBF is unchanged during exercise due to vascular autoregulation. This autoregulation fails at ocular perfusion pressures greater than 70% above baseline. In conclusion exercise in glaucoma patients results in acutely lowered IOP and lower baseline IOP. The effects of exercise on the prevention of glaucoma and glaucomatous progression remain unknown. The role of exercise in glaucoma management should be investigated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)429-436
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Glaucoma
Volume18
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Intraocular Pressure
Exercise
Glaucoma
Healthy Volunteers
Homeostasis
Hypocapnia
Optic Nerve Diseases
Physical Fitness
Retinal Ganglion Cells
Age Factors
Blood Vessels
Cell Death
Perfusion
Pressure

Keywords

  • Glaucoma
  • IOP
  • Ocular blood flow

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Effects of exercise on intraocular pressure and ocular blood flow : A review. / Risner, David; Ehrlich, Rita; Kheradiya, Nisha S.; Siesky, Brent; McCranor, Lynne; Harris, Alon.

In: Journal of Glaucoma, Vol. 18, No. 6, 08.2009, p. 429-436.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Risner, David ; Ehrlich, Rita ; Kheradiya, Nisha S. ; Siesky, Brent ; McCranor, Lynne ; Harris, Alon. / Effects of exercise on intraocular pressure and ocular blood flow : A review. In: Journal of Glaucoma. 2009 ; Vol. 18, No. 6. pp. 429-436.
@article{f50f6a500cc04e8783c5479cd40324c7,
title = "Effects of exercise on intraocular pressure and ocular blood flow: A review",
abstract = "Glaucoma is a disease characterized by progressive optic neuropathy resulting in retinal ganglion cell death, which affects approximately 68 million people worldwide. Risk factors include intraocular pressure (IOP), genetics, race, age, and vascular factors. Exercise is known to affect IOP and systemic cardiovascular factors and, therefore, may affect glaucoma pathophysiology. This review discusses the results of articles relevant to glaucoma, IOP, ocular blood flow (OBF), and exercise. Isometric and dynamic exercises have been studied with respect to effects on IOP and OBF. Isometric exercise results in an acute decrease in IOP, which correlates with hypocapnia. Dynamic exercise results in a more pronounced but also short duration decrease in IOP. Physical fitness is associated with lower baseline IOP but diminished acute IOP-lowering response to exercise. Upon cessation of exercise, values return to pretrained levels within 1 month. In glaucoma patients, these IOP-lowering effects are greater than in healthy subjects. In healthy subjects, OBF is unchanged during exercise due to vascular autoregulation. This autoregulation fails at ocular perfusion pressures greater than 70{\%} above baseline. In conclusion exercise in glaucoma patients results in acutely lowered IOP and lower baseline IOP. The effects of exercise on the prevention of glaucoma and glaucomatous progression remain unknown. The role of exercise in glaucoma management should be investigated.",
keywords = "Glaucoma, IOP, Ocular blood flow",
author = "David Risner and Rita Ehrlich and Kheradiya, {Nisha S.} and Brent Siesky and Lynne McCranor and Alon Harris",
year = "2009",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1097/IJG.0b013e31818fa5f3",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "18",
pages = "429--436",
journal = "Journal of Glaucoma",
issn = "1057-0829",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of exercise on intraocular pressure and ocular blood flow

T2 - A review

AU - Risner, David

AU - Ehrlich, Rita

AU - Kheradiya, Nisha S.

AU - Siesky, Brent

AU - McCranor, Lynne

AU - Harris, Alon

PY - 2009/8

Y1 - 2009/8

N2 - Glaucoma is a disease characterized by progressive optic neuropathy resulting in retinal ganglion cell death, which affects approximately 68 million people worldwide. Risk factors include intraocular pressure (IOP), genetics, race, age, and vascular factors. Exercise is known to affect IOP and systemic cardiovascular factors and, therefore, may affect glaucoma pathophysiology. This review discusses the results of articles relevant to glaucoma, IOP, ocular blood flow (OBF), and exercise. Isometric and dynamic exercises have been studied with respect to effects on IOP and OBF. Isometric exercise results in an acute decrease in IOP, which correlates with hypocapnia. Dynamic exercise results in a more pronounced but also short duration decrease in IOP. Physical fitness is associated with lower baseline IOP but diminished acute IOP-lowering response to exercise. Upon cessation of exercise, values return to pretrained levels within 1 month. In glaucoma patients, these IOP-lowering effects are greater than in healthy subjects. In healthy subjects, OBF is unchanged during exercise due to vascular autoregulation. This autoregulation fails at ocular perfusion pressures greater than 70% above baseline. In conclusion exercise in glaucoma patients results in acutely lowered IOP and lower baseline IOP. The effects of exercise on the prevention of glaucoma and glaucomatous progression remain unknown. The role of exercise in glaucoma management should be investigated.

AB - Glaucoma is a disease characterized by progressive optic neuropathy resulting in retinal ganglion cell death, which affects approximately 68 million people worldwide. Risk factors include intraocular pressure (IOP), genetics, race, age, and vascular factors. Exercise is known to affect IOP and systemic cardiovascular factors and, therefore, may affect glaucoma pathophysiology. This review discusses the results of articles relevant to glaucoma, IOP, ocular blood flow (OBF), and exercise. Isometric and dynamic exercises have been studied with respect to effects on IOP and OBF. Isometric exercise results in an acute decrease in IOP, which correlates with hypocapnia. Dynamic exercise results in a more pronounced but also short duration decrease in IOP. Physical fitness is associated with lower baseline IOP but diminished acute IOP-lowering response to exercise. Upon cessation of exercise, values return to pretrained levels within 1 month. In glaucoma patients, these IOP-lowering effects are greater than in healthy subjects. In healthy subjects, OBF is unchanged during exercise due to vascular autoregulation. This autoregulation fails at ocular perfusion pressures greater than 70% above baseline. In conclusion exercise in glaucoma patients results in acutely lowered IOP and lower baseline IOP. The effects of exercise on the prevention of glaucoma and glaucomatous progression remain unknown. The role of exercise in glaucoma management should be investigated.

KW - Glaucoma

KW - IOP

KW - Ocular blood flow

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=70249128711&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=70249128711&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/IJG.0b013e31818fa5f3

DO - 10.1097/IJG.0b013e31818fa5f3

M3 - Article

VL - 18

SP - 429

EP - 436

JO - Journal of Glaucoma

JF - Journal of Glaucoma

SN - 1057-0829

IS - 6

ER -