Effects of fluoride concentration and temperature of milk on caries lesion rehardening

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Scopus citations


Objectives: The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the effects of fluoride concentration and temperature of milk on caries lesion rehardening under pH cycling conditions. Methods: Incipient caries-like lesions were formed in human enamel specimens, characterized using Vickers surface microhardness (VHN) and assigned to seven treatment groups (n = 18 per group): fluoride was tested at five levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg/l, all 22 °C) and milk temperature at three levels (4, 22, 60°C), but only for 10 mg/l F. Lesions were pH cycled for 15d (4×/daily 10 min milk treatments, 1×/daily 4 h acid challenge, remineralization in human/artificial saliva mixture). VHN of specimens were measured again and changes from lesion baseline were calculated. Subsequently, enamel fluoride uptake (EFU) was determined using the micro drill technique. Results: Lesions responded to fluoride in a dose-response manner with higher fluoride concentrations resulting in more lesion rehardening (20 > 10 ≥ 5 ≥ 2.5 > 0 mg/l F). Furthermore, fluoridated milk at 60°C was found to be more efficacious than at 4°C (60 ≥ 22 > 4°C). EFU results were similar (20 > 10 > 5 > 2.5 ≥ 0 mg/l F; 60 > 22 ≥ 4°C). Conclusions: Both fluoride concentration and milk temperature are likely to contribute to the anti-caries potential of fluoridated milk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)810-813
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Dentistry
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2012



  • Enamel caries
  • Fluoride
  • Milk
  • PH cycling
  • Rehardening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this