This study was undertaken to determine the effects of occupation, lifestyle and the genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and glutathione S-transferases μ1 (GSTM1) and θ1 (GSTT1) on the concentrations of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 2-naphthol among Korean coke oven workers and university students. The study subjects included 90 coke oven workers and 128 university students. A questionnaire was used to obtain detailed data about the work area, smoking habits and food intake of subjects. Associations between urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and occupation, smoking status, total airborne PAH level and genetic polymorphisms were tested. Urinary 1-OHP and 2-naphthol concentrations were higher in coke oven workers than in students and correlated significantly with work area. Urinary 2-naphthol concentrations increased with an increase in the level of cigarette smoking in students. Total airborne PAH level correlated with urinary 1-OHP concentration in coke oven workers. Urinary 1-OHP and 2-naphthol concentrations were higher in coke oven workers with the c1/c2 or c2/c2 genotype of CYP2E1 than in those with the c1/c1 genotype. Urinary 2-naphthol concentrations were higher in GSTM1-null workers than in GSTM1-positive workers. In multiple regression analysis CYP2E1 was a significant factor determining urinary 1-OHP concentrations in coke oven workers. CYP2E1 and GSTM1 were significant determinants for urinary 2-naphthol concentrations in coke oven workers and GSTM1 and smoking were prognosticators among university students. Urinary 1-OHP is a better indicator of occupational exposure to PAH in coke oven workers than 2-naphthol, whereas urinary 2-naphthol may be more sensitive for non-occupational inhalation exposure to PAH. In occupationally exposed populations CYP2E1 and GSTM1 appear to play an important role in the metabolism of pyrene and naphthalene. In individuals not occupationally exposed to PAHs GSTM1 and smoking seem to influence the urinary concentration of 2-naphthol.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research