Effects of PIXY321, a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin-3 fusion protein, on chemotherapy-induced multilineage myelosuppression in patients with sarcoma

Saroj Vadhan-Raj, Nicholas E. Papadopoulos, Michael A. Burgess, Kaye A. Linke, Shreyaskumar R. Patel, Carolyn Hays, Anthony Arcenas, Carl Plager, Andrzej P. Kudelka, Walter N. Hittelman, Hal E. Broxmeyer, Douglas E. Williams, Leslie Garrison, Robert S. Benjamin

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Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical safety and ability of PIXY321, a novel fusion protein of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony- stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3), to ameliorate chemotherapy-induced multilineage myelosuppression. Patients and Methods: PIXY321 was administered by subcutaneous injection twice daily (25 to 1,000 μg/m2/d) over 14 days to 24 chemotherapy-naive patients with sarcoma in a phase I/II study. Three weeks from the initiation of PIXY321, the first cycle of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and dacarbazine (DTIC) (CyADIC) was administered over 3 days. Four weeks later, a second cycle of CyADIC was administered, followed by 14 days of PIXY321. Results: Treatment with PIXY321 was well tolerated. Local skin reactions and constitutional symptoms were the main side effects. The dose-limiting toxicity was not encountered; however, headache and fatigue were more frequent at the highest dose (1,000 μg/m2). PIXY321 before chemotherapy elicited a modest increase in the WBC count (consisting mainly of mature neutrophils), platelets, and corrected reticulocyte counts (all P < .001). Following chemotherapy, PIXY321 at effective doses (500 to 1,000 μg/m2/d), significantly reduced both the degree (mean nadir, 70 v 310/μL; P = .016) and duration (mean days < 500/μL, 6.6 v 3.9 days; P = .002) of neutropenia. Cumulative thrombocytopenia was not observed during the first two cycles of CyADIC (mean nadir platelet count, 103 v 95 x 103/μL, in cycles no. 1 and 2, respectively; P = NS). Compared with our historic control data, the mean nadir platelet count in cycle no. 2 was significantly higher after PIXY321 (1.7-fold, P < .05) than with CyADIC alone or with GM-CSF support. There was a suggestion for a dose response, since the mean percentage change in nadir platelet values from cycle no. 1 to cycle no. 2 increased with the PIXY321 dose (P < .02), with the peak effect observed at 750 μg/m2/d. Conclusion: These results suggest a potential clinical role for PIXY321 in attenuating the cumulative multilineage hematopoietic toxicity of chemotherapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)715-724
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Volume12
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1994

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Vadhan-Raj, S., Papadopoulos, N. E., Burgess, M. A., Linke, K. A., Patel, S. R., Hays, C., Arcenas, A., Plager, C., Kudelka, A. P., Hittelman, W. N., Broxmeyer, H. E., Williams, D. E., Garrison, L., & Benjamin, R. S. (1994). Effects of PIXY321, a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin-3 fusion protein, on chemotherapy-induced multilineage myelosuppression in patients with sarcoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 12(4), 715-724. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.1994.12.4.715