More than 30 years ago, Zoll1 demonstrated the life-saving application of external electrical stimulation of the arrested heart. Now he and his colleagues2 have improved on that technique. In this issue of the Journal, they show that even in this electronically sophisticated medical age, a simple approach may still have a place. But in the 30-year interval, particularly in the past four or five years, phenomenal developments in the electrical control of the heartbeat have occurred. Very advanced and complex dual-chamber (atrioventricular) pacing devices have been developed that permit maximal restoration of normal hemodynamic and electrical responses in patients with.
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