Emerging prognostic biomarkers in testicular germ cell tumors: Looking beyond established practice

Michal Chovanec, Costantine Albany, Michal Mego, Rodolfo Montironi, Alessia Cimadamore, Liang Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

6 Scopus citations


Testicular germ cell tumors are unique among solid cancers. Historically, this disease was deadly if progressed beyond the stage I. The implementation of cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens has drastically changed the clinical outcome of metastatic testicular cancer. Several biomarkers were established to refine the prognosis by International Germ Cell Collaborative Group in 1997. Among these, the most significant were primary tumor site; metastatic sites, such as non-pulmonary visceral metastases; and the amplitude of serum tumor markers α-fetoprotein, β-chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase. Since then, oncology has experienced discoveries of various molecular biomarkers to further refine the prognosis and treatment of malignancies. However, the ability to predict the prognosis and treatment response in germ cell tumors did not improve for many years. Clinical trials with novel targeting agents that were conducted in refractory germ cell tumor patients have proven to have negative outcomes. With the recent advances and developments, novel biomarkers emerge in the field of germ cell tumor oncology. This review article aims to summarize the current knowledge in the research of novel prognostic biomarkers in testicular germ cell tumors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number571
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
Issue numberNOV
StatePublished - 2018


  • Biomarkers
  • Liquid biopsy
  • Molecular genetics
  • Testicular germ cell tumors
  • Testis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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