Irina Petrache, K. Serban

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD) is a chronic condition, typically induced by inhalation of injurious environmental elements, for example, tobacco smoke, which manifests with abnormal lung function, such as an obstructive ventilator defect on pulmonary function tests. COPD, which classically encompasses two main phenotypes, chronic bronchitis and emphysema, is now recognized as a syndrome with several pulmonary (e.g., acute disease exacerbation and pulmonary hypertension) and systemic (e.g., cardiovascular diseases, cachexia, bone marrow dysfunction, lung cancer, and depression) manifestations. Therefore, characterization of COPD phenotypes based on cLinical, functional, and invasive and noninvasive biomarkers has become a major endpoint of any ongoing cLinical, translational, and basic research studies. There is an important genetic component to the risk of developing COPD, such as deficiency in the serine protease inhibitor alpha-1 antitrypsin. In addition to a lung protease-antiprotease imbalance and increased elastolysis, cellular stress response mechanisms, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, senescence, DNA-oxidative damage, and apoptosis, combined with abnormal (inefficient and/or maladaptive) repair mechanisms result in altered developmentally determined lung maintenance program and disease progression despite smoking cessation. The current management of COPD is aimed at disease prevention (early smoking cessation), symptoms' alleviation (bronchodilators, oxygen therapy, and pulmonary rehabiLitation), disease exacerbation therapy (corticosteroids and antibiotics) and prevention (pneumococcal and influenza vaccines), and early diagnosis and treatment of systemic comorbidities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPathobiology of Human Disease
Subtitle of host publicationA Dynamic Encyclopedia of Disease Mechanisms
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9780123864567
ISBN (Print)9780123864574
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Alpha-1 antitrypsin
  • AlveoLi
  • Biomarkers
  • Bronchitis
  • Cigarette smoke
  • COPD
  • Emphysema
  • Genetic susceptibiLity
  • Inflammation
  • Lung function
  • Microbiome
  • Pathogenesis
  • Pathology
  • Tissue repair and remodeLing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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  • Cite this

    Petrache, I., & Serban, K. (2014). Emphysema. In Pathobiology of Human Disease: A Dynamic Encyclopedia of Disease Mechanisms (pp. 2609-2624). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-386456-7.05305-3