Endothelial dysfunction: Its role in hypertensive coronary disease

Islam Bolad, Patrice Delafontaine

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose of review: Coronary artery disease is the major cause of death worldwide. Hypertension is a major risk factor for developing coronary disease. It is now recognized that endothelial dysfunction is an early marker of coronary artery disease before structural changes to the vessel wall are apparent on angiography or intravascular ultrasound and that it has a prognostic value in predicting cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients. This review addresses recent developments in hypertension-induced endothelial dysfunction. Recent findings: Hyperaldosteronism causes endothelial dysfunction independent of high blood pressure. Exaggerated exercise blood pressure response has been related to endothelial dysfunction. Cyclosporin-A-induced endothelial dysfunction is related to reduced cholesterol content in caveolae. Chronic kidney disease induces changes in caveoli-1 and thus contributes to the reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, and causes oxidative stress independent of the high blood pressure. Asymmetric dimethylarginine plays a role in endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients independent of insulin resistance. 20- Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is an independent predictor of hypertension in postmenopausal women. Endothelial dysfunction precedes and predicts the development of hypertension in postmenopausal women. Oral treatment with L-arginine improves endothelial dysfunction in hypertensives and lowers the blood pressure. Summary: The pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunction in hypertension is multifactorial. Recent findings have contributed to our understanding of mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and support a role for early intervention to prevent irreversible vascular and organ damage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)270-274
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent Opinion in Cardiology
Volume20
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2005

Keywords

  • Coronary artery disease
  • Endothelial dysfunction hypertension
  • Nitric oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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