Information about energy requirements of extremely low-birth weight infants is sparse, despite the rapidly improving survival rates of this population. Metabolizable energy intake can be estimated from energy balance studies and the percentage of caloric intake that is actually absorbed by these infants is approximately 87%. Data on energy expenditure in extremely premature infants is limited; however, energy expenditure has been shown to increase with postnatal age. Because both intake and expenditure are affected by multiple factors, there is significant variability in estimates of the energy requirements in extremely low-birth weight infants. At present, no valid recommendations can be made regarding optimal energy requirements for the extremely low-birth weight infant, except that their requirements probably exceed those of stable, growing very low-birth weight infants, currently estimated at 105 to 135 kcal·kg-1d-1.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Obstetrics and Gynecology