Epidemiology, demographics, and outcomes of craniomaxillofacial gunshot wounds in a Level i trauma center

Sunil S. Tholpady, Patrick Demoss, Kariuki P. Murage, Robert J. Havlik, Roberto L. Flores

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Scopus citations


Background Gunshot injuries to the craniomaxillofacial region are a challenge to the trauma and reconstructive surgeon. Although management of these injuries has been standardized and early rather than late intervention is advocated, the patient characteristics before, during, and after have been poorly elucidated. Methods A prospectively maintained Level I trauma center database was queried as to gunshot wounds of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton. Over a five-year period (2007-2011), 168 patients were identified with these injuries. Charts were reviewed as to demographics, presentations, and outcomes and these were tested for significant relationships with hospital length of stay, numbers and types of procedures, morbidity, and mortality. Results Gunshot wounds to the craniofacial skeleton resulted in 71 deaths in this patient population. Those that died were significantly older, presented with a lower GCS, had a shorter LOS, and a higher INR than those that lived. Subgroup analysis of mechanism demonstrated mortality was more likely to occur as a result of self-inflicted injury in whites and due to assault in the African-American population. Conclusions Data gathered from this study disputes some commonly held beliefs regarding the epidemiology of gunshot injuries and should allow for better characterization of which outcomes are consistent with which presentations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)403-411
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 2014


  • Craniofacial trauma
  • Epidemiology
  • Gunshot wounds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

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