Background: The epidemiology of hypertension among hemodialysis (HD) patients is difficult to describe accurately because of difficulties in the assessment of blood pressure (BP). Methods: Using 44-hour interdialytic ambulatory BP measurements, we describe the epidemiology of hypertension in a cohort of 369 patients. To seek correlates of hypertension control, antihypertensive agents were withdrawn among patients with controlled hypertension and ambulatory BP monitoring was repeated. Results: Hypertension (defined as an average ambulatory systolic BP ≥135 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥85 mm Hg, or the use of antihypertensive medications) was prevalent in 82% of the patients and independently associated with epoetin use, lower body mass index and fewer years on dialysis. Although 89% of the patients were being treated, hypertension was controlled adequately in only 38%. Poor control was independently associated with greater antihypertensive drug use. Inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter in expiration was associated with increased risk of poorly controlled hypertension both in cross-sectional analysis and after withdrawal of antihypertensive drugs. Conclusions: Interdialytic hypertension is highly prevalent and difficult to control among HD patients. End-expiration IVC diameter is associated with poor control of hypertension in cross-sectional analyses as well as after washout of antihypertensive drugs. Among HD patients, an attractive target for improving hypertension control appears to be the reduction of extracellular fluid volume.
- Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
- Vitamin D receptor activators
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