It is known that ultraviolet B (UVB) induces PPARγ ligand formation while loss of murine epidermal PPARγ (Pparg-/-epi) promotes UVB-induced apoptosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. PPARγ is known to suppress tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production. TNF-α is also known to promote UVB-induced inflammation, apoptosis, and immunosuppression. We show that Pparg-/-epi mice exhibit increased baseline TNF-α expression. Neutralizing Abs to TNF-α block the increased photo-inflammation and photo-toxicity that is observed in Pparg-/-epi mouse skin. Interestingly, the increase in UVB-induced apoptosis in Pparg-/-epi mice is not accompanied by a change in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer clearance or in mutation burden. This suggests that loss of epidermal PPARγ does not result in a significant alteration in DNA repair capacity. However, loss of epidermal PPARγ results in marked immunosuppression using a contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model. This impaired CHS response was significantly alleviated using neutralizing TNF-α antibodies or loss of germline Tnf. In addition, the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone reversed UVB-induced systemic immunosuppression (UVIS) as well as UV-induced growth of B16F10 melanoma tumor cells in syngeneic mice. Finally, increased B16F10 tumor growth was observed when injected subcutaneously into Pparg-/-epi mice. Thus, we provide novel evidence that epidermal PPARγ is important for cutaneous immune function and the acute photoresponse.
- Contact hypersensitivity
- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor G
- Tumor necrosis factor alpha
ASJC Scopus subject areas