Esmail Jorjani (1042-1137) and his descriptions of trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and Bell's palsy

Mohammadali M. Shoja, R. Shane Tubbs, Majid Khalili, Kazem Khodadoost, Marios Loukas, Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

9 Scopus citations


ESMAIL JORJANI WAS a prominent Persian physician of the 11th and 12th centuries. We present Jorjani's descriptions of probable trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and Bell's palsy. Additionally, on the basis of our translations of his original text, we believe that Jorjani may have been the first to implicate an artery-nerve conflict as an etiology of trigeminal neuralgia. This theory, documented in Jorjani's Treasure of the Khawarazm Shah and elaborated on by Dandy and Jannetta, constitutes the basis of a modern surgical approach to trigeminal neuralgia. The authors also describe the life and works of Esmail Jorjani and review his Treasure for its descriptions related to the aforementioned cranial nerve pathologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)431-434
Number of pages4
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2010



  • Esmail Jorjani
  • History
  • Trigeminal neuralgia
  • Vascular compression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery

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