Etiology and Treatment of Hypogonadism in Adolescents

Vidhya Viswanathan, Erica A. Eugster

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

22 Scopus citations


Adequate functioning at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is necessary for normal gonadal development and subsequent sex steroid production. Deficiencies at any level of the axis can lead to a hypogonadal state. The causes of hypogonadism are heterogeneous and may involve any level of the reproductive system. This review discusses various causes of hypogonadism, describes the evaluation of hypogonadal states, and outlines treatment options for the induction of puberty in affected adolescents. Whereas some conditions are clearly delineated, the exact etiology and underlying pathogenesis of many disorders is unknown.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1181-1200
Number of pages20
JournalPediatric Clinics of North America
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2011


  • Adolescents
  • Delayed puberty
  • Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism
  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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