Background: EUS-guided FNA is safe and accurate for the diagnosis of benign or malignant neoplasia and lymphadenopathy; however, its role in the diagnosis of recurrent malignancy is not well described. Methods: A prospectively updated EUS-guided FNA cytology database was used to identify patients in whom a diagnosis of postoperative, recurrent, extraluminal, or metastatic malignancy was made over a 5-year period. Only patients with a positive EUS-guided FNA were included in the analysis. All had undergone surgery for the primary malignancy and were in clinical and/or radiographic remission before the initial suspicion of tumor recurrence. Results: Twenty-one patients underwent EUS-guided FNA of 21 lesions (19 masses, 2 lymph nodes) because of a suspicion of recurrent malignancy based on CT (n = 17) or EUS (n = 4) findings. Median time from the initial diagnosis to recurrence was 26 months (range 5-276 months). Lesions were located in the pancreas (9 patients), mediastinum (7), liver (3), perigastric region (1), and liver hilum (1). EUS-guided FNA (mean number of needle passes, 4.5; range 2-8) obtained diagnostic material for recurrent malignancy in all patients as follows: esophageal (6 patients), renal cell (6), pancreatic (2), breast (2), colon (2), bile duct (1), Ewing's sarcoma (1), and lung (1) cancer. No complication was encountered. Transgastric EUS-guided FNA (4 patients), distal, or transesophageal EUS-FNA (2) proximal to a surgical anastomosis was required to confirm recurrence in all 6 patients with esophageal cancer. The initial cytologic diagnosis of recurrent malignancy was made by EUS in 20 of 21 (95%) patients. One patient with recurrent breast cancer had CT-guided FNA of a right lung mass preceding EUS-guided FNA of an AP window lymph node. Conclusions: EUS-guided FNA can detect and safely diagnose recurrent malignancy in the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and liver. When possible, correlation between EUS-guided FNA cytology and original tumor histopathology/cytology, or the use of immunostaining to confirm the diagnosis, is recommended.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging