Background. Acute cellular rejection (ACR) is a major early complication after lung transplantation (LT) and is a risk factor for chronic rejection. Induction immunosuppression has been used as a strategy to reduce early ACR. Recently, our LT program changed our primary induction protocol from basiliximab with standardmaintenance immunosuppression to alemtuzumab induction with reduced dose maintenance immunosuppression. The objective of this study was to compare incidence of ACR after this change in the first 6 months after transplantation. Methods. A retrospective, cohort review of patients 18 years or older, which received their first LT between January 2010 and September 2012. Results. The primary outcome was comparison of average lung biopsy scores at 6months. Secondary outcomes included development of grade A2 or higher rejection, infectious outcomes, overall graft and patient survival. At 6 months, the average biopsy score was significantly lower in the alemtuzumab group than the basiliximab group (0.12 ± 0.29 vs 0.74 ± 0.67; P < 0.0001) (Table 2). Grade 2 or higher rejection was significantly higher in the basiliximab group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Alemtuzumab provided superior outcomes in regard to average biopsy score and lower incidence of grade 2 or higher rejection at 6months. There were no differences in infectious complications or overall graft or patient survival between the 2 groups.
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