Evidence that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ suppresses squamous carcinogenesis through anti-inflammatory signaling and regulation of the immune response

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Abstract

A variety of evidence suggests that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonists may represent a potential pharmacologic target in the prevention or treatment of skin cancer. In particular, recent reports suggest that PPARγ activation may exert at least some of its anti-neoplastic effects through the suppression of tumor promoting chronic inflammation as well as by strengthening antitumor immune responses. This activity is thought to occur through a distinct mode of ligand interaction with PPARγ that causes transrepression of transcription factors that are involved in inflammatory and immunomodulatory signaling. However, current thiazolidinedione (TZD)-type PPARγ agonists have significant safety concerns that limit their usefulness as a preventive or therapeutic option. Due to the relatively large ligand binding pocket of PPARγ, a diverse group of ligands can be seen to interact with distinct modes of binding to PPARγ, leading to the phenomenon of partial agonist activity and selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARγM). This has led to the development of ligands that are tailored to deliver desired pharmacologic activity, but lack some of the negative side effects associated with full agonists, such as the currently utilized TZD-type PPARγ agonists. In addition, there is evidence that a number of phytochemicals that are currently being touted as antineoplastic nutraceuticals also possess PPARγ activity that may partially explain their pharmacologic activity. We propose that one or more of these partial agonists, SPPARγMs, or putative phytochemical PPARγ ligands could presumably be used as a starting point to design more efficacious anti-neoplastic PPARγ ligands that lack adverse pharmacological effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1589-1601
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular Carcinogenesis
Volume58
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
Carcinogenesis
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Ligands
Phytochemicals
Skin Neoplasms
Dietary Supplements
Antineoplastic Agents
Transcription Factors
Pharmacology
Inflammation

Keywords

  • antitumor immunity
  • inflammation
  • peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ
  • skin cancer
  • transrepression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

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abstract = "A variety of evidence suggests that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonists may represent a potential pharmacologic target in the prevention or treatment of skin cancer. In particular, recent reports suggest that PPARγ activation may exert at least some of its anti-neoplastic effects through the suppression of tumor promoting chronic inflammation as well as by strengthening antitumor immune responses. This activity is thought to occur through a distinct mode of ligand interaction with PPARγ that causes transrepression of transcription factors that are involved in inflammatory and immunomodulatory signaling. However, current thiazolidinedione (TZD)-type PPARγ agonists have significant safety concerns that limit their usefulness as a preventive or therapeutic option. Due to the relatively large ligand binding pocket of PPARγ, a diverse group of ligands can be seen to interact with distinct modes of binding to PPARγ, leading to the phenomenon of partial agonist activity and selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARγM). This has led to the development of ligands that are tailored to deliver desired pharmacologic activity, but lack some of the negative side effects associated with full agonists, such as the currently utilized TZD-type PPARγ agonists. In addition, there is evidence that a number of phytochemicals that are currently being touted as antineoplastic nutraceuticals also possess PPARγ activity that may partially explain their pharmacologic activity. We propose that one or more of these partial agonists, SPPARγMs, or putative phytochemical PPARγ ligands could presumably be used as a starting point to design more efficacious anti-neoplastic PPARγ ligands that lack adverse pharmacological effects.",
keywords = "antitumor immunity, inflammation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ, skin cancer, transrepression",
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