Background. Surgical approaches to single ventricle variants include staged, fenestrated, and completed Fontan operations. This study compares outcomes with these modifications of the Fontan operation at a single center. Methods. Preoperative risk factors and operative results were analyzed by multivariate techniques in 129 patients undergoing modified Fontan operations since March 1988. Results. Overall early and late mortality was 5.41% and 0.8%, respectively. Before 1993, completed Fontan operation using right atrial to pulmonary artery anastomoSis without fenestration was performed in the majority of patients (44 of 58; 76%). During this period, 10 of 17 patients at high risk had completed Fontan with three takedowns. In 1994, the staged hemi-Fontan and modified Fontan with a lateral tunnel anastomosis and with or without small fenestration (2.5 to 4 mm) were introduced. The majority of patients at high risk during this period underwent hemi-Fontan followed by fenestrated Fontan with no takedowns. Late atrial dysrhythmias occurred in 6 patients (4.7%), generally with larger fenestrations or right atrial to pulmonary anastomose. Three patients (2.3%) had a stroke, 2 with large (≥ 4 mm) fenestrations. Of 38 fenestrations, 32 (84%) closed spontaneously by 1 year. No protein-losing enteropathy occurred. Most patients (118 of 121) were in New York Heart Association class I/II 4.5 years postoperatively. By multivariate analysis, only Down's syndrome (p < 0.001) predicted early mortality, whereas both Down's syndrome and a systemic right ventricle decreased late survival (p < 0.006). Conclusions. Proper selection of patients modifications of the Fontan procedure resulted in excellent early and late survival with a low incidence of atrial dysrhythmia and stroke. Midterm functional outcomes were excellent. (C) 2000 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine