Executive functioning skills in long-term users of cochlear implants: A case control study

William G. Kronenberger, David B. Pisoni, Shirley C. Henning, Bethany G. Colson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations


Objective To investigate differences in executive functioning between deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and normal-hearing (NH) peers. The cognitive effects of auditory deprivation in childhood may extend beyond speech-language skills to more domain-general areas including executive functioning. Methods Executive functioning skills in a sample of 53 prelingually deaf children, adolescents, and young adults who received CIs prior to age 7 years and who had used their CIs for ≥7 years were compared with age- and nonverbal IQ-matched NH peers and with scale norms. Results Despite having above average nonverbal IQ, the CI sample scored lower than the NH sample and test norms on several measures of short-term/working memory, fluency-speed, and inhibition-concentration. Executive functioning was unrelated to most demographic and hearing history characteristics. Conclusions Prelingual deafness and long-term use of CIs was associated with increased risk of weaknesses in executive functioning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)902-914
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of pediatric psychology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Sep 2013


  • cognitive assessment
  • deafness and hearing loss
  • neuropsychology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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