Expression of transforming growth factor-β1, 2, and 3 mRNA and protein in human cancers

Leslie I. Gold, Murray Korc

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations


Historically, the role for transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs) in malignancy has been difficult to prove. TGF-βs are potent autocrine and paracrine negative regulators of the growth of normal epithelial and neuroectodermal cells in vitro. Therefore we hypothesized that the aberrant growth of tumor cells and neoplastic development, in general, may be due to a loss of growth regulation by TGF-β. By immunohistochemistry, using isoform specific antibodies raised to synthetic peptides of each TGF-β isoform, and by in situ hybridization, using non-cross-hybridizing cRNA probes to each TGF-β isoform. we examined the protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β, respectively, in a variety of carcinomas and gliomas compared to normal tissue. The analysis of the cell types that synthesized the messge for TGF-β isoforms compared to those which synthesized the protein indicated whether TGF-β functioned by an autocrine or paracrine mechanism of action in these tumors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)150-156
Number of pages7
JournalDigestive Surgery
Issue number3-6
StatePublished - Jan 1 1994


  • Breast carcinoma, human
  • Colon carcinoma, human
  • Endometrial carcinoma, human
  • Gliomas
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • In situ hybridization
  • Pancreatic carcinoma, human
  • Progression
  • Transforming growth factor-β1, 2 and 3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Gastroenterology

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