External genital warts: Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

D. J. Wiley, John Douglas, Karl Beutner, Tom Cox, Kenneth Fife, Anna Barbara Moscicki, Lynne Fukumoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

248 Scopus citations


External genital warts (EGWs) are visible warts that occur in the perigenital and perianal regions. They are due primarily to non-oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types, usually types 6 and 11. Physical examination assisted by bright light and magnification is the recommended approach for primary diagnosis. Biopsy is indicated when EGWs are fixed to underlying structures or discolored or when standard therapies are not effective. Recurrences are common, and there is no single treatment that is superior to others. Among women with atypical squamous cells, molecular HPV testing may be useful in determining who should be referred for colposcopy. Condoms may provide some protection against HPV-related diseases and thus are recommended in new sexual relationships and when partnerships are not mutually monogamous. Because the efficacy of cesarean section in preventing vertical transmission of HPV infection from women with EGWs to their progeny has not been proved, it is not recommended.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S210-S224
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
StatePublished - Oct 15 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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    Wiley, D. J., Douglas, J., Beutner, K., Cox, T., Fife, K., Moscicki, A. B., & Fukumoto, L. (2002). External genital warts: Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 35, S210-S224. https://doi.org/10.1086/342109