Extrathoracic metastases of thymic origin: A review of 35 cases

Tudor Vladislav, Rohit K. Jain, Rudy Alvarez, Rutika J. Mehta, Yesim Gökmen-Polar, Kenneth A. Kesler, John D. Henley, Patrick J. Loehrer, Sunil Badve

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

34 Scopus citations


Thymic tumors are categorized as types A, AB, B1, B2, B3, and thymic carcinoma under the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Thymomas are typically slow growing tumors that predominantly involve the surrounding structures through direct invasion, while thymic carcinomas tend to be more aggressive. A significant number of patients are asymptomatic and can present with metastases as the first presentation. The exact incidence of extrathoracic metastases from thymoma is not known. This study describes a series of 35 cases of histologically documented metastatic thymomas and thymic carcinomas at extrathoracic sites. These cases were classified according to the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification criteria, and we present their clinical data as well as discuss the differential diagnoses of these lesions. Our study shows that all types of thymic tumors, regardless of histologic type, can be associated with invasion and metastases to thoracic and extrathoracic sites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)370-377
Number of pages8
JournalModern Pathology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2012


  • extrathoracic metastases
  • thymic carcinoma
  • thymoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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