Facial Tissue Depths in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate

John M. Starbuck, Ahmed Ghoneima, Katherine Kula

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is a craniofacial malformation affecting more than seven million people worldwide that results in defects of the hard palate, teeth, maxilla, nasal spine and floor, and maxillodental asymmetry. CLP facial soft-tissue depth (FSTD) values have never been published. The purpose of this research is to report CLP FSTD values and compare them to previously published FSTD values for normal children. Thirty-eight FSTDs were measured on cone beam computed tomography images of CLP children (n = 86; 7-17 years). MANOVA and ANOVA tests determined whether cleft type, age, sex, and bone graft surgical status affect tissue depths. Both cleft type (unilateral/bilateral) and age influence FSTDs. CLP FSTDs exhibit patterns of variation that differ from normal children, particularly around the oronasal regions of the face. These differences should be taken into account when facial reconstructions of children with CLP are created.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)274-284
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Forensic Sciences
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2015


  • Cleft lip and cleft palate
  • Cone beam computed tomography
  • Facial reproduction
  • Facial restoration
  • Facial soft-tissue depth
  • Forensic anthropology
  • Forensic facial reconstruction
  • Forensic science

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Genetics

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