Fish Consumption and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status and Determinants in Long-Term Hemodialysis

Allon N. Friedman, Sharon M. Moe, Susan M. Perkins, Yong Li, Bruce A. Watkins

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66 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Blood levels of the anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective omega-3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids are determined primarily by dietary consumption. There is reason to believe that hemodialysis patients are at risk for inadequate omega-3 intake and, consequently, low blood levels. Methods: This question was tested in 75 long-term hemodialysis patients and 25 matched controls by measuring fasting, predialysis plasma and red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid levels using gas chromatography and performing a fish-consumption survey. Results: Sixty-seven percent of patients did not meet American Heart Association fish-consumption guidelines for healthy persons. Compared with controls, patients had lower plasma omega-3 levels (mean % wt: DHA, 1.33 ± 0.38 [SD] versus 1.51 ± 0.36; P = 0.0370; omega-3 index [ie, EPA plus DHA], 1.67 ± 0.49 versus 1.92 ± 0.40; P = 0.0249). RBC levels, which estimate more long-term consumption, showed mixed results (EPA, 0.29 ± 0.08 versus 0.33 ± 0.11; P = 0.0816; DHA, 4.65 ± 0.92 versus 3.16 ± 1.15; P < 0.0001; omega-3 index, 4.95 ± 0.95 versus 3.49 ± 1.22; P < 0.0001). RBC omega-3 levels in patients roughly reflected fish consumption. Independent predictors of plasma and RBC omega-3 levels at the 0.05 level of significance included age, race, sex, alcohol use, and fish servings. Conclusion: Hemodialysis patients consumed fish in quantities far below current American Heart Association recommendations and manifested suboptimal omega-3 levels given their high heart disease risk. These results identify a potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1064-1071
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Volume47
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2006

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Keywords

  • docosahexaenoic acid
  • eicosapentaenoic acid
  • Fatty acid
  • hemodialysis (HD)
  • omega-3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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