The cloning of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and its subsequent production in other organisms sparked a revolution in the study of cellular processes (Prasher et al. 1992; Chalfie et al. 1994; Inouye and Tsuji 1994). For the first time, the genetically encoded fluorescent protein (FP) could be used to directly label any protein inside the living cell. When combined with the extraordinary advances in microscope and camera technologies over the past decade, the FPs opened entirely new avenues of study in cell biology, medicine, and physiology. In the years since its cloning, the sequence encoding the Aequorea GFP has been engineered to yield new FPs emitting light from the blue to yellowish-green range of the visible spectrum (Tsien 1998; Cubitt et al. 1999; Nagai et al. 2002; Rizzo et al. 2004; Ai et al. 2007; Day and Davidson, 2009). Furthermore, many marine organisms produce FPs that are homologous to the Aequorea GFP (Labas et al. 2002; Matz et al. 2002; Shagin et al. 2004), and some of these GFP-like proteins have extended the fluorescence palette into the deep red spectrum (Matz et al. 1999; Karasawa et al. 2004; Shcherbo et al. 2007; reviewed in Day and Davidson 2009).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)