Fluoride content of water used to reconstitute infant formula

Julie E.A. Steinmetz, E. Angeles Martinez-Mier, James E. Jones, Brian J. Sanders, James A. Weddell, Armando E. Soto-Rojas, Angela M. Tomlin, George J. Eckert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations


Objective. To assess the fluoride content of water used to reconstitute infant formula by a Latino population living in the Indianapolis, Indiana, area. Background. Negligible as well as excessive fluoride can be detrimental to oral health. Estimates of fluoride intake and exposure for individuals may aid in the determination of their risk for developing dental fluorosis or caries. Methods. Interviews were conducted to determine brands of bottled water used to reconstitute infant formula. Identified brands were analyzed for fluoride concentration. Results. Of the 458 samples tested (from 20 brands), fluoride concentration ranged from 0.006 to 0.740 ?g/mL. All brands but one had fluoride concentration less than 0.7 ?g/mL, with 16 brands having less than 0.22 ?g/mL. Most bottled waters analyzed in the study comply with the American Dental Association recommendation to prevent fluorosis. Comparisons made demonstrated that only waters targeted for infants and that are fluoridated do not comply with recent American Dental Association recommendations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)100-105
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Pediatrics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2011


  • bottled water
  • children
  • dental caries
  • dentistry
  • fluoride
  • fluorosis
  • formula
  • pediatrics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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