Fluoride exposure and pubertal development in children living in Mexico City

Yun Liu, Martha Téllez-Rojo, Howard Hu, Brisa N. Sánchez, Esperanza Martinez Mier, Niladri Basu, Adriana Mercado-García, Maritsa Solano-González, Karen E. Peterson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Previous animal and ecological studies have provided evidence for an earlier sexual maturation in females in relation to fluoride exposure; however, no epidemiological studies have examined the association between fluoride exposure and pubertal development in both boys and girls using individual-level biomarkers of fluoride. Capitalizing on an ongoing Mexican birth cohort study, we examined the association between concurrent urinary fluoride levels and physical markers of pubertal development in children. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 157 boys and 176 girls at age 10-17 years living in Mexico City. We used ion-selective electrode-based diffusion methods to assess fluoride levels in urine, adjusting for urinary specific gravity. Pubertal stages were evaluated by a trained physician. Associations of fluoride with pubertal stages and age at menarche were studied using ordinal regression and Cox proportional-hazard regression, respectively. Results: In the entire sample, the geometric mean and interquartile range (IQR) of urinary fluoride (specific gravity adjusted) were 0.59 mg/L and 0.31 mg/L, respectively. In boys, our analysis showed that a one-IQR increase in urinary fluoride was associated with later pubic hair growth (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.98, p = 0.03) and genital development (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.95, p = 0.02). No significant associations were found in girls, although the direction was negative. Conclusions: Childhood fluoride exposure, at the levels observed in our study, was associated with later pubertal development among Mexican boys at age 10-17 years. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number26
JournalEnvironmental Health: A Global Access Science Source
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 29 2019
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Child Development
Mexico
Fluorides
Specific Gravity
Ion-Selective Electrodes
Sexual Maturation
Menarche
Hair
Epidemiologic Studies
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Biomarkers
Urine
Parturition
Physicians
Growth
Research

Keywords

  • Fluoride
  • Genitalia
  • Menarche
  • Puberty
  • Pubic hair

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Fluoride exposure and pubertal development in children living in Mexico City. / Liu, Yun; Téllez-Rojo, Martha; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Martinez Mier, Esperanza; Basu, Niladri; Mercado-García, Adriana; Solano-González, Maritsa; Peterson, Karen E.

In: Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, Vol. 18, No. 1, 26, 29.03.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liu, Y, Téllez-Rojo, M, Hu, H, Sánchez, BN, Martinez Mier, E, Basu, N, Mercado-García, A, Solano-González, M & Peterson, KE 2019, 'Fluoride exposure and pubertal development in children living in Mexico City', Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, vol. 18, no. 1, 26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-019-0465-7
Liu, Yun ; Téllez-Rojo, Martha ; Hu, Howard ; Sánchez, Brisa N. ; Martinez Mier, Esperanza ; Basu, Niladri ; Mercado-García, Adriana ; Solano-González, Maritsa ; Peterson, Karen E. / Fluoride exposure and pubertal development in children living in Mexico City. In: Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source. 2019 ; Vol. 18, No. 1.
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AU - Hu, Howard

AU - Sánchez, Brisa N.

AU - Martinez Mier, Esperanza

AU - Basu, Niladri

AU - Mercado-García, Adriana

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AU - Peterson, Karen E.

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AB - Background: Previous animal and ecological studies have provided evidence for an earlier sexual maturation in females in relation to fluoride exposure; however, no epidemiological studies have examined the association between fluoride exposure and pubertal development in both boys and girls using individual-level biomarkers of fluoride. Capitalizing on an ongoing Mexican birth cohort study, we examined the association between concurrent urinary fluoride levels and physical markers of pubertal development in children. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 157 boys and 176 girls at age 10-17 years living in Mexico City. We used ion-selective electrode-based diffusion methods to assess fluoride levels in urine, adjusting for urinary specific gravity. Pubertal stages were evaluated by a trained physician. Associations of fluoride with pubertal stages and age at menarche were studied using ordinal regression and Cox proportional-hazard regression, respectively. Results: In the entire sample, the geometric mean and interquartile range (IQR) of urinary fluoride (specific gravity adjusted) were 0.59 mg/L and 0.31 mg/L, respectively. In boys, our analysis showed that a one-IQR increase in urinary fluoride was associated with later pubic hair growth (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.98, p = 0.03) and genital development (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.95, p = 0.02). No significant associations were found in girls, although the direction was negative. Conclusions: Childhood fluoride exposure, at the levels observed in our study, was associated with later pubertal development among Mexican boys at age 10-17 years. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.

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