Formation of protein kinase recognition sites by covalent modification of the substrate. Molecular mechanism for the synergistic action of casein kinase II and glycogen synthase kinase 3.

C. J. Fiol, A. M. Mahrenholz, Y. Wang, R. W. Roeske, Peter Roach

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Abstract

The mechanism for synergistic phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and casein kinase II was studied using a synthetic peptide which contains the sequence of a potentially important proline/serine-rich regulatory region of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase. The peptide, Ac-PRPAS(3a)VPPS(3b)PSLS(3c)RHSS(4)PHQS(5) EDEEEP-amide, has five known phosphorylation sites of the native enzyme designated sites 3a, 3b, 3c, 4, and 5, which are spaced every fourth residue. The peptide was phosphorylated specifically at site 5 by casein kinase II with an apparent Km of 23 microM, but it was not phosphorylated by GSK-3. However, after initial phosphorylation of site 5 by casein kinase II, the peptide became an effective substrate for GSK-3 with an apparent Km of 2 microM. GSK-3 introduced up to four phosphates and appeared to catalyze the sequential modification of sites 4, 3c, 3b, and 3a, respectively. The results can be explained if GSK-3 recognizes the sequence -SXXXS(P). Phosphorylation of site 5 by casein kinase II creates this recognition site. Thereafter, each successive phosphorylation introduced by GSK-3 generates a new recognition site. The results provide a molecular basis to explain the synergistic action of casein kinase II and GSK-3 that is also observed with native glycogen synthase. In addition, this investigation emphasizes how protein recognition sites in some cellular targets may have to be formed post-translationally.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14042-14048
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume262
Issue number29
StatePublished - Oct 15 1987

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Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
Casein Kinase II
Protein Kinases
Phosphorylation
Substrates
Glycogen Synthase
Peptides
Nucleic Acid Regulatory Sequences
Proline
Amides
Serine
Muscle
Phosphates
Rabbits
Muscles
Enzymes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

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Formation of protein kinase recognition sites by covalent modification of the substrate. Molecular mechanism for the synergistic action of casein kinase II and glycogen synthase kinase 3. / Fiol, C. J.; Mahrenholz, A. M.; Wang, Y.; Roeske, R. W.; Roach, Peter.

In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 262, No. 29, 15.10.1987, p. 14042-14048.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The mechanism for synergistic phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and casein kinase II was studied using a synthetic peptide which contains the sequence of a potentially important proline/serine-rich regulatory region of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase. The peptide, Ac-PRPAS(3a)VPPS(3b)PSLS(3c)RHSS(4)PHQS(5) EDEEEP-amide, has five known phosphorylation sites of the native enzyme designated sites 3a, 3b, 3c, 4, and 5, which are spaced every fourth residue. The peptide was phosphorylated specifically at site 5 by casein kinase II with an apparent Km of 23 microM, but it was not phosphorylated by GSK-3. However, after initial phosphorylation of site 5 by casein kinase II, the peptide became an effective substrate for GSK-3 with an apparent Km of 2 microM. GSK-3 introduced up to four phosphates and appeared to catalyze the sequential modification of sites 4, 3c, 3b, and 3a, respectively. The results can be explained if GSK-3 recognizes the sequence -SXXXS(P). Phosphorylation of site 5 by casein kinase II creates this recognition site. Thereafter, each successive phosphorylation introduced by GSK-3 generates a new recognition site. The results provide a molecular basis to explain the synergistic action of casein kinase II and GSK-3 that is also observed with native glycogen synthase. In addition, this investigation emphasizes how protein recognition sites in some cellular targets may have to be formed post-translationally.",
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AB - The mechanism for synergistic phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and casein kinase II was studied using a synthetic peptide which contains the sequence of a potentially important proline/serine-rich regulatory region of rabbit muscle glycogen synthase. The peptide, Ac-PRPAS(3a)VPPS(3b)PSLS(3c)RHSS(4)PHQS(5) EDEEEP-amide, has five known phosphorylation sites of the native enzyme designated sites 3a, 3b, 3c, 4, and 5, which are spaced every fourth residue. The peptide was phosphorylated specifically at site 5 by casein kinase II with an apparent Km of 23 microM, but it was not phosphorylated by GSK-3. However, after initial phosphorylation of site 5 by casein kinase II, the peptide became an effective substrate for GSK-3 with an apparent Km of 2 microM. GSK-3 introduced up to four phosphates and appeared to catalyze the sequential modification of sites 4, 3c, 3b, and 3a, respectively. The results can be explained if GSK-3 recognizes the sequence -SXXXS(P). Phosphorylation of site 5 by casein kinase II creates this recognition site. Thereafter, each successive phosphorylation introduced by GSK-3 generates a new recognition site. The results provide a molecular basis to explain the synergistic action of casein kinase II and GSK-3 that is also observed with native glycogen synthase. In addition, this investigation emphasizes how protein recognition sites in some cellular targets may have to be formed post-translationally.

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