Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the effects of an exercise/diet lifestyle intervention on free fatty acid (FFA)-induced hepatic insulin resistance in obese humans. Research Design and Methods: Obese men and women (n = 23) with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned to either exercise training with a eucaloric (EU; ∼1800 kcal; n = 11) or hypocaloric (HYPO;∼1300 kcal;n = 12) diet for 12 wk. Hepatic glucose production (HGP; milligrams per kilogram fat-free mass-1 per minute-1) and hepatic insulin resistance were determined using a two-stage sequential hyperinsulinemic (40 mU/m2 • min-1) euglycemic (5.0 mM) clamp with [3-3H]glucose. Measures were obtained at basal, during insulin infusion (INS; 120 min), and insulin plus intralipid/heparin infusion (INS/FFA; 300 min). Results: At baseline, basal HGP was similar between groups; hyperinsulinemia alone did not completely suppress HGP, whereas INS/FFA exhibited less suppression than INS (EU, 4.6±0.8, 2.0±0.5, and 2.6 ± 0.4; HYPO, 3.8 ± 0.5, 1.2 ± 0.3, and 2.3 ± 0.4, respectively). After the intervention the HYPO group lost more body weight (P < 0.05) and fat mass (P < 0.05). However, both lifestyle interventions reduced hepatic insulin resistance during basal (P = 0.005) and INS (P = 0.001) conditions, and insulin-mediated suppression of HGP during INS was equally improved in both groups (EU: -42 ± 22%; HYPO: -50 ± 20%, before vs. after, P = 0.02). In contrast, the ability of insulin to overcome FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistanceandHGPwasimproved only in theHYPO group (EU: -15 ± 24% vs. HYPO: -58 ± 19%, P = 0.02). Conclusions: Both lifestyle interventions are effective in reducing hepatic insulin resistance under basal and hyperinsulinemic conditions. However, the reversal of FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance is best achieved with a combined exercise/caloric-restriction intervention.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical