Freeze-tolerance adaptations, including haemolymph protein and lipoprotein nucleators, in the larvae of the cranefly Tipula trivittata

John G. Duman, Lisa G. Neven, John M. Beals, Kenneth R. Olson, Francis J. Castellino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Scopus citations


The terrestrial overwintering larvae of the cranefly Tipula trivittata were freeze tolerant (able to survive the freezing of their extracellular body fluids) throughout the winter and spring of 1982-1983 until they pupated in mid-May. The larvae were most cold tolerant (24 h lower lethal temperatures of -25 to -30°C) in late January and early February. Sorbitol, at a maximal concentration of ∼0.4 M, was the only polyol determined to be present at high levels and sorbitol accounted for most of the seasonal fluctuation in osmotic concentration. Haemolymph inorganic ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-) concentrations did not vary seasonally. The supercooling points of the larvae remained constant at -6 to -7°C over the study period because of the presence of haemolymph ice nucleating factors. These ice nucleating factors consist not only of haemolymph proteins, as had been demonstrated previously in other insect species, but also lipoproteins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-5,7-8
JournalJournal of Insect Physiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1985



  • cold tolerance
  • cranefly
  • Freeze tolerance
  • haemolymph inorganic ions
  • ice nucleator proteins
  • lipoproteins
  • sorbitol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science
  • Physiology

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