Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 3. Ligands, post-translational modifications, and diseases associated with intrinsically disordered proteins

Hongbo Xie, Slobodan Vucetic, Lilia M. Iakoucheva, Christopher J. Oldfield, A. Keith Dunker, Zoran Obradovic, Vladimir N. Uversky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

277 Scopus citations

Abstract

Currently, the understanding of the relationships between function, amino acid sequence, and protein structure continues to represent one of the major challenges of the modern protein science. As many as 50% of eukaryotic proteins are likely to contain functionally important long disordered regions. Many proteins are wholly disordered but still possess numerous biologically important functions. However, the number of experimentally confirmed disordered proteins with known biological functions is substantially smaller than their actual number in nature. Therefore, there is a crucial need for novel bionformatics approaches that allow projection of the current knowledge from a few experimentally verified examples to much larger groups of known and potential proteins. The elaboration of a bioinformatics tool for the analysis of functional diversity of intrinsically disordered proteins and application of this data mining tool to >200 000 proteins from the Swiss-Prot database, each annotated with at least one of the 875 functional keywords, was described in the first paper of this series (Xie, H.; Vucetic, S.; Iakoucheva, L. M.; Oldfield, C. J.; Dunker, A. K.; Obradovic, Z.; Uversky, V.N. Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 1. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions. J. Proteome Res. 2007, 5, 1882-1898). Using this tool, we have found that out of the 710 Swiss-Prot functional keywords associated with at least 20 proteins, 262 were strongly positively correlated with long intrinsically disordered regions, and 302 were strongly negatively correlated. Illustrative examples of functional disorder or order were found for the vast majority of keywords showing strongest positive or negative correlation with intrinsic disorder, respectively. Some 80 Swiss-Prot keywords associated with disorder- and order-driven biological processes and protein functions were described in the first paper (see above). The second paper of the series was devoted to the presentation of 87 Swiss-Prot keywords attributed to the cellular components, domains, technical terms, developmental processes, and coding sequence diversities possessing strong positive and negative correlation with long disordered regions (Vucetic, S.; Xie, H.; Iakoucheva, L. M.; Oldfield, C. J.; Dunker, A. K.; Obradovic, Z.; Uversky, V. N. Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 2. Cellular components, domains, technical terms, developmental processes, and coding sequence diversities correlated with long disordered regions. J. Proteome Res. 2007, 5, 1899-1916). Protein structure and functionality can be modulated by various post-translational modifications or/and as a result of binding of specific ligands. Numerous human diseases are associated with protein misfolding/misassembly/misfunctioning. This work concludes the series of papers dedicated to the functional anthology of intrinsic disorder and describes ∼80 Swiss-Prot functional keywords that are related to ligands, post-translational modifications, and diseases possessing strong positive or negative correlation with the predicted long disordered regions in proteins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1917-1932
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Proteome Research
Volume6
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2007

Keywords

  • Bioinformatics
  • Disorder prediction
  • Intrinsic disorder
  • Intrinsically disordered proteins
  • Protein function
  • Protein structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry

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