Functional mixed effects models

Ziyue Liu, Wensheng Guo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


Functional mixed effects model (FMM) is a mixed effects modeling framework that both the fixed effects and the random effects are modeled by nonparametric curves. The combination of mixed effects model and nonparametric smoothing enables FMMs to handle outcomes with complex profiles and at the same time to incorporate complex experimental designs and include covariates. Estimation and inference can be performed either using techniques from linear mixed effects models or using fully Bayesian approaches. As in functional data analysis, inference in FMMs is preliminary and needs to be further investigated. Several software packages have been developed to implement FMMs, although computational challenges do exist no matter which smoothing method is used.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)527-534
Number of pages8
JournalWiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2012


  • Functional data analysis
  • Mixed effects
  • Nonparametric smoothing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability

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