Gels and more gels: Probing toxicity

Frank A. Witzmann, Fengju Bai, Seok Min Hong, Sheng Liu, Nathan Pedrick, Heather Ringham, Jian Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

4 Scopus citations


Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) remains an important technology in the study of protein expression. In many applications, 2-DE has been supplanted by liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric approaches that overcome some of its limitations and labor intensiveness. Nevertheless, 2-DE has exceptional relevance in toxicology and, despite the challenges, its implementation continues to support toxicologists in understanding the biological effects of chemical exposures in living systems. This review will address the use of 2-DE-based proteomics in toxicology and recent developments in this strategy, considering the unique nature of toxicity testing and the issues of dynamic range and reproducibility that have previously limited the overall utility of 2-DE in this field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)608-615
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2004


  • Complexity reduction
  • Differential centrifugation
  • Isoelectric focusing
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Proteomics
  • Sample fractionation
  • Toxicology
  • Two-dimensional electrophoresis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

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  • Cite this

    Witzmann, F. A., Bai, F., Hong, S. M., Liu, S., Pedrick, N., Ringham, H., & Tan, J. (2004). Gels and more gels: Probing toxicity. Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics, 6(6), 608-615.