Gender and traumatic brain injury: Do the sexes fare differently?

Jonathan J. Ratcliff, Arlene I. Greenspan, Felicia C. Goldstein, Anthony Y. Stringer, Tamara Bushnik, Flora Hammond, Thomas A. Novack, John Whyte, David W. Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

61 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To examine the relationship between gender and cognitive recovery 1 year following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Patients with blunt TBI were identified from the TBI Model Systems of Care National Database, multi-centre cohort study. The included patients (n = 325) were 16-45 years at injury, admitted to an acute care facility within 24 hours, received inpatient rehabilitation, had documented admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, completed neuropsychological follow-up 1 year post-injury and did not report pre-morbid learning problems. Multivariate analyses of variance examined the unadjusted association between gender and six cognitive domains examining attention/working memory, verbal memory, language, visual analytic skills, problem-solving and motor functioning. Analyses of covariance models were constructed to determine if confounding factors biased the observed associations. Results: Females performed significantly better than males on tests of attention/working memory and language. Males outperformed females in visual analytic skills. Gender remained significantly associated with performance in these areas when controlling for confounding variables. Conclusions: These results suggest a better cognitive recovery of females than males following TBI. However, future studies need to include non-TBI patients to control for possible pre-injury gender-related differences, as well as to conduct extended follow-ups to determine the stability of the observed differences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1023-1030
Number of pages8
JournalBrain Injury
Volume21
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2007
Externally publishedYes

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Short-Term Memory
Wounds and Injuries
Language
Glasgow Coma Scale
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Brain Injuries
Inpatients
Analysis of Variance
Cohort Studies
Rehabilitation
Multivariate Analysis
Learning
Databases
Traumatic Brain Injury

Keywords

  • Closed head injury
  • Gender
  • Outcome
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Ratcliff, J. J., Greenspan, A. I., Goldstein, F. C., Stringer, A. Y., Bushnik, T., Hammond, F., ... Wright, D. W. (2007). Gender and traumatic brain injury: Do the sexes fare differently? Brain Injury, 21(10), 1023-1030. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699050701633072

Gender and traumatic brain injury : Do the sexes fare differently? / Ratcliff, Jonathan J.; Greenspan, Arlene I.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Stringer, Anthony Y.; Bushnik, Tamara; Hammond, Flora; Novack, Thomas A.; Whyte, John; Wright, David W.

In: Brain Injury, Vol. 21, No. 10, 09.2007, p. 1023-1030.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ratcliff, JJ, Greenspan, AI, Goldstein, FC, Stringer, AY, Bushnik, T, Hammond, F, Novack, TA, Whyte, J & Wright, DW 2007, 'Gender and traumatic brain injury: Do the sexes fare differently?', Brain Injury, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1023-1030. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699050701633072
Ratcliff JJ, Greenspan AI, Goldstein FC, Stringer AY, Bushnik T, Hammond F et al. Gender and traumatic brain injury: Do the sexes fare differently? Brain Injury. 2007 Sep;21(10):1023-1030. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699050701633072
Ratcliff, Jonathan J. ; Greenspan, Arlene I. ; Goldstein, Felicia C. ; Stringer, Anthony Y. ; Bushnik, Tamara ; Hammond, Flora ; Novack, Thomas A. ; Whyte, John ; Wright, David W. / Gender and traumatic brain injury : Do the sexes fare differently?. In: Brain Injury. 2007 ; Vol. 21, No. 10. pp. 1023-1030.
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