Genes encoding enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effects of beverage alcohol (ethanol) on the body are determined largely by the rate at which it and its main breakdown product, acetaldehyde, are metabolized after consumption. The main metabolic pathway for ethanol involves the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Seven different ADHs and three different ALDHs that metabolize ethanol have been identified. The genes encoding these enzymes exist in different variants (i.e., alleles), many of which differ by a single DNA building block (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]). Some of these SNPs result in enzymes with altered kinetic properties. For example, certain ADH1B and ADH1C variants that are commonly found in East Asian populations lead to more rapid ethanol breakdown and acetaldehyde accumulation in the body. Because acetaldehyde has harmful effects on the body, people carrying these alleles are less likely to drink and have a lower risk of alcohol dependence. Likewise, an ALDH2 variant with reduced activity results in acetaldehyde buildup and also has a protective effect against alcoholism. In addition to affecting drinking behaviors and risk for alcoholism, ADH and ALDH alleles impact the risk for esophageal cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-344
Number of pages6
JournalAlcohol Research and Health
Volume34
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2011

Fingerprint

Acetaldehyde
Ethanol
Alcoholism
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Alleles
Enzymes
Genes
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Drinking Behavior
Beverages
Esophageal Neoplasms
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
Alcohols
DNA
Population

Keywords

  • Acetaldehyde
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)
  • Alcohol dependence
  • Alcoholism
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)
  • DNA
  • Enzymes
  • Esophageal cancer
  • Ethanol metabolism
  • Genetic factors
  • Genetic variance
  • Genetics
  • Protective factors
  • Risk factors
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Genes encoding enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism. / Hurley, Thomas; Edenberg, Howard.

In: Alcohol Research and Health, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2011, p. 339-344.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{fbcf033ccaf341adab14c1e037361689,
title = "Genes encoding enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism",
abstract = "The effects of beverage alcohol (ethanol) on the body are determined largely by the rate at which it and its main breakdown product, acetaldehyde, are metabolized after consumption. The main metabolic pathway for ethanol involves the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Seven different ADHs and three different ALDHs that metabolize ethanol have been identified. The genes encoding these enzymes exist in different variants (i.e., alleles), many of which differ by a single DNA building block (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]). Some of these SNPs result in enzymes with altered kinetic properties. For example, certain ADH1B and ADH1C variants that are commonly found in East Asian populations lead to more rapid ethanol breakdown and acetaldehyde accumulation in the body. Because acetaldehyde has harmful effects on the body, people carrying these alleles are less likely to drink and have a lower risk of alcohol dependence. Likewise, an ALDH2 variant with reduced activity results in acetaldehyde buildup and also has a protective effect against alcoholism. In addition to affecting drinking behaviors and risk for alcoholism, ADH and ALDH alleles impact the risk for esophageal cancer.",
keywords = "Acetaldehyde, Alcohol consumption, Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), Alcohol dependence, Alcoholism, Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), DNA, Enzymes, Esophageal cancer, Ethanol metabolism, Genetic factors, Genetic variance, Genetics, Protective factors, Risk factors, Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)",
author = "Thomas Hurley and Howard Edenberg",
year = "2011",
language = "English",
volume = "34",
pages = "339--344",
journal = "Alcohol research : current reviews",
issn = "2168-3492",
publisher = "National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genes encoding enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism

AU - Hurley, Thomas

AU - Edenberg, Howard

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - The effects of beverage alcohol (ethanol) on the body are determined largely by the rate at which it and its main breakdown product, acetaldehyde, are metabolized after consumption. The main metabolic pathway for ethanol involves the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Seven different ADHs and three different ALDHs that metabolize ethanol have been identified. The genes encoding these enzymes exist in different variants (i.e., alleles), many of which differ by a single DNA building block (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]). Some of these SNPs result in enzymes with altered kinetic properties. For example, certain ADH1B and ADH1C variants that are commonly found in East Asian populations lead to more rapid ethanol breakdown and acetaldehyde accumulation in the body. Because acetaldehyde has harmful effects on the body, people carrying these alleles are less likely to drink and have a lower risk of alcohol dependence. Likewise, an ALDH2 variant with reduced activity results in acetaldehyde buildup and also has a protective effect against alcoholism. In addition to affecting drinking behaviors and risk for alcoholism, ADH and ALDH alleles impact the risk for esophageal cancer.

AB - The effects of beverage alcohol (ethanol) on the body are determined largely by the rate at which it and its main breakdown product, acetaldehyde, are metabolized after consumption. The main metabolic pathway for ethanol involves the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Seven different ADHs and three different ALDHs that metabolize ethanol have been identified. The genes encoding these enzymes exist in different variants (i.e., alleles), many of which differ by a single DNA building block (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]). Some of these SNPs result in enzymes with altered kinetic properties. For example, certain ADH1B and ADH1C variants that are commonly found in East Asian populations lead to more rapid ethanol breakdown and acetaldehyde accumulation in the body. Because acetaldehyde has harmful effects on the body, people carrying these alleles are less likely to drink and have a lower risk of alcohol dependence. Likewise, an ALDH2 variant with reduced activity results in acetaldehyde buildup and also has a protective effect against alcoholism. In addition to affecting drinking behaviors and risk for alcoholism, ADH and ALDH alleles impact the risk for esophageal cancer.

KW - Acetaldehyde

KW - Alcohol consumption

KW - Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)

KW - Alcohol dependence

KW - Alcoholism

KW - Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)

KW - DNA

KW - Enzymes

KW - Esophageal cancer

KW - Ethanol metabolism

KW - Genetic factors

KW - Genetic variance

KW - Genetics

KW - Protective factors

KW - Risk factors

KW - Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84870202160&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84870202160&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84870202160

VL - 34

SP - 339

EP - 344

JO - Alcohol research : current reviews

JF - Alcohol research : current reviews

SN - 2168-3492

IS - 3

ER -