Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

S. Hong Lee, Stephan Ripke, Benjamin M. Neale, Stephen V. Faraone, Shaun M. Purcell, Roy H. Perlis, Bryan J. Mowry, Anita Thapar, Michael E. Goddard, John S. Witte, Devin Absher, Ingrid Agartz, Huda Akil, Farooq Amin, Ole A. Andreassen, Adebayo Anjorin, Richard Anney, Verneri Anttila, Dan E. Arking, Philip Asherson & 350 others Maria H. Azevedo, Lena Backlund, Judith A. Badner, Anthony J. Bailey, Tobias Banaschewski, Jack D. Barchas, Michael R. Barnes, Thomas B. Barrett, Nicholas Bass, Agatino Battaglia, Michael Bauer, Mònica Bayés, Frank Bellivier, Sarah E. Bergen, Wade Berrettini, Catalina Betancur, Thomas Bettecken, Joseph Biederman, Elisabeth B. Binder, Donald W. Black, Douglas H R Blackwood, Cinnamon S. Bloss, Michael Boehnke, Dorret I. Boomsma, Gerome Breen, René Breuer, Richard Bruggeman, Paul Cormican, Nancy G. Buccola, Jan K. Buitelaar, William E. Bunney, Joseph D. Buxbaum, William F. Byerley, Enda M. Byrne, Sian Caesar, Wiepke Cahn, Rita M. Cantor, Miguel Casas, Aravinda Chakravarti, Kimberly Chambert, Khalid Choudhury, Sven Cichon, C. Robert Cloninger, David A. Collier, Edwin H. Cook, Hilary Coon, Bru Cormand, Aiden Corvin, William H. Coryell, David W. Craig, Ian W. Craig, Jennifer Crosbie, Michael L. Cuccaro, David Curtis, Darina Czamara, Susmita Datta, Geraldine Dawson, Richard Day, Eco J. De Geus, Franziska Degenhardt, Srdjan Djurovic, Gary J. Donohoe, Alysa E. Doyle, Jubao Duan, Frank Dudbridge, Eftichia Duketis, Richard P. Ebstein, Howard Edenberg, Josephine Elia, Sean Ennis, Bruno Etain, Ayman Fanous, Anne E. Farmer, I. Nicol Ferrier, Matthew Flickinger, Eric Fombonne, Tatiana Foroud, Josef Frank, Barbara Franke, Christine Fraser, Robert Freedman, Nelson B. Freimer, Christine M. Freitag, Marion Friedl, Louise Frisén, Louise Gallagher, Pablo V. Gejman, Lyudmila Georgieva, Elliot S. Gershon, Daniel H. Geschwind, Ina Giegling, Michael Gill, Scott D. Gordon, Katherine Gordon-Smith, Elaine K. Green, Tiffany A. Greenwood, Dorothy E. Grice, Magdalena Gross, Detelina Grozeva, Weihua Guan, Hugh Gurling, Lieuwe De Haan, Jonathan L. Haines, Hakon Hakonarson, Joachim Hallmayer, Steven P. Hamilton, Marian L. Hamshere, Thomas F. Hansen, Annette M. Hartmann, Martin Hautzinger, Andrew C. Heath, Anjali K. Henders, Stefan Herms, Ian B. Hickie, Maria Hipolito, Susanne Hoefels, Peter A. Holmans, Florian Holsboer, Witte J. Hoogendijk, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Christina M. Hultman, Vanessa Hus, Andrés Ingason, Marcus Ising, Stéphane Jamain, Edward G. Jones, Ian Jones, Lisa Jones, Jung Ying Tzeng, Anna K. Kähler, René S. Kahn, Radhika Kandaswamy, Matthew C. Keller, James L. Kennedy, Elaine Kenny, Lindsey Kent, Yunjung Kim, George K. Kirov, Sabine M. Klauck, Lambertus Klei, James A. Knowles, Martin A. Kohli, Daniel L. Koller, Bettina Konte, Ania Korszun, Lydia Krabbendam, Robert Krasucki, Jonna Kuntsi, Phoenix Kwan, Mikael Landén, Niklas Långström, Mark Lathrop, Jacob Lawrence, William B. Lawson, Marion Leboyer, David H. Ledbetter, Phil H. Lee, Todd Lencz, Klaus Peter Lesch, Douglas F. Levinson, Cathryn M. Lewis, Jun Li, Paul Lichtenstein, Jeffrey A. Lieberman, Dan Yu Lin, Don H. Linszen, Chunyu Liu, Falk W. Lohoff, Sandra K. Loo, Catherine Lord, Jennifer K. Lowe, Susanne Lucae, Donald J. Macintyre, Pamela A F Madden, Elena Maestrini, Patrik K E Magnusson, Pamela B. Mahon, Wolfgang Maier, Anil K. Malhotra, Shrikant M. Mane, Christa L. Martin, Nicholas G. Martin, Manuel Mattheisen, Keith Matthews, Morten Mattingsdal, Steven A. Mccarroll, Kevin A. Mcghee, James J. Mcgough, Patrick J. Mcgrath, Peter Mcguffin, Melvin G. Mcinnis, Andrew Mcintosh, Rebecca Mckinney, Alan W. Mclean, Francis J. Mcmahon, William M. Mcmahon, Andrew Mcquillin, Helena Medeiros, Sarah E. Medland, Sandra Meier, Ingrid Melle, Fan Meng, Jobst Meyer, Christel M. Middeldorp, Lefkos Middleton, Vihra Milanova, Ana Miranda, Anthony P. Monaco, Grant W. Montgomery, Jennifer L. Moran, Daniel Moreno-De-Luca, Gunnar Morken, Derek W. Morris, Eric M. Morrow, Valentina Moskvina, Pierandrea Muglia, Thomas W. Mühleisen, Walter J. Muir, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Michael Murtha, Richard M. Myers, Inez Myin-Germeys, Michael C. Neale, Stan F. Nelson, Caroline M. Nievergelt, Ivan Nikolov, Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, Willem A. Nolen, Markus M. Nöthen, John Nurnberger, Evaristus A. Nwulia, Dale R. Nyholt, Colm O'dushlaine, Robert D. Oades, Ann Olincy, Guiomar Oliveira, Line Olsen, Roel A. Ophoff, Urban Osby, Michael J. Owen, Aarno Palotie, Jeremy R. Parr, Andrew D. Paterson, Carlos N. Pato, Michele T. Pato, Brenda W. Penninx, Michele L. Pergadia, Margaret A. Pericak-Vance, Benjamin S. Pickard, Jonathan Pimm, Joseph Piven, Danielle Posthuma, James B. Potash, Fritz Poustka, Peter Propping, Vinay Puri, Digby J. Quested, Emma M. Quinn, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Henrik B. Rasmussen, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Karola Rehnström, Andreas Reif, Marta Ribasés, John P. Rice, Marcella Rietschel, Kathryn Roeder, Herbert Roeyers, Lizzy Rossin, Aribert Rothenberger, Guy Rouleau, Douglas Ruderfer, Dan Rujescu, Alan R. Sanders, Stephan J. Sanders, Susan L. Santangelo, Joseph A. Sergeant, Russell Schachar, Martin Schalling, Alan F. Schatzberg, William A. Scheftner, Gerard D. Schellenberg, Stephen W. Scherer, Nicholas J. Schork, Thomas G. Schulze, Johannes Schumacher, Markus Schwarz, Edward Scolnick, Laura J. Scott, Jianxin Shi, Paul D. Shilling, Stanley I. Shyn, Jeremy M. Silverman, Susan L. Slager, Susan L. Smalley, Johannes H. Smit, Erin N. Smith, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, David St. Clair, Matthew State, Michael Steffens, Hans Christoph Steinhausen, John S. Strauss, Jana Strohmaier, T. Scott Stroup, James S. Sutcliffe, Peter Szatmari, Szabocls Szelinger, Srinivasa Thirumalai, Robert C. Thompson, Alexandre A. Todorov, Federica Tozzi, Jens Treutlein, Manfred Uhr, Edwin J C G Van Den Oord, Gerard Van Grootheest, Jim Van Os, Astrid M. Vicente, Veronica J. Vieland, John B. Vincent, Peter M. Visscher, Christopher A. Walsh, Thomas H. Wassink, Stanley J. Watson, Myrna M. Weissman, Thomas Werge, Thomas F. Wienker, Ellen M. Wijsman, Gonneke Willemsen, Nigel Williams, A. Jeremy Willsey, Stephanie H. Witt, Wei Xu, Allan H. Young, Timothy W. Yu, Stanley Zammit, Peter P. Zandi, Peng Zhang, Frans G. Zitman, Sebastian Zöllner, Bernie Devlin, John R. Kelsoe, Pamela Sklar, Mark J. Daly, Michael C. O'donovan, Nicholas Craddock, Patrick F. Sullivan, Jordan W. Smoller, Kenneth S. Kendler, Naomi R. Wray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1026 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17-29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohn's disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)984-994
Number of pages11
JournalNature Genetics
Volume45
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2013

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Major Depressive Disorder
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Psychiatry
Schizophrenia
Bipolar Disorder
Genome
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Genomics
Crohn Disease
Genotype
Autism Spectrum Disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics

Cite this

Lee, S. H., Ripke, S., Neale, B. M., Faraone, S. V., Purcell, S. M., Perlis, R. H., ... Wray, N. R. (2013). Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs. Nature Genetics, 45(9), 984-994. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2711

Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs. / Lee, S. Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Perlis, Roy H.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Thapar, Anita; Goddard, Michael E.; Witte, John S.; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Anttila, Verneri; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayés, Mònica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Black, Donald W.; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Breen, Gerome; Breuer, René; Bruggeman, Richard; Cormican, Paul; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bunney, William E.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Byerley, William F.; Byrne, Enda M.; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Cloninger, C. Robert; Collier, David A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H.; Craig, David W.; Craig, Ian W.; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; De Geus, Eco J.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P.; Edenberg, Howard; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Farmer, Anne E.; Ferrier, I. Nicol; Flickinger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Freitag, Christine M.; Friedl, Marion; Frisén, Louise; Gallagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Grice, Dorothy E.; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; De Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Thomas F.; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B.; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holmans, Peter A.; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Hultman, Christina M.; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andrés; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stéphane; Jones, Edward G.; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Tzeng, Jung Ying; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C.; Kennedy, James L.; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A.; Kohli, Martin A.; Koller, Daniel L.; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Landén, Mikael; Långström, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B.; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H.; Lee, Phil H.; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Dan Yu; Linszen, Don H.; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W.; Loo, Sandra K.; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lucae, Susanne; Macintyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela A F; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahon, Pamela B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; Mccarroll, Steven A.; Mcghee, Kevin A.; Mcgough, James J.; Mcgrath, Patrick J.; Mcguffin, Peter; Mcinnis, Melvin G.; Mcintosh, Andrew; Mckinney, Rebecca; Mclean, Alan W.; Mcmahon, Francis J.; Mcmahon, William M.; Mcquillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E.; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W.; Morrow, Eric M.; Moskvina, Valentina; Muglia, Pierandrea; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Muir, Walter J.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Michael C.; Nelson, Stan F.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nurnberger, John; Nwulia, Evaristus A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'dushlaine, Colm; Oades, Robert D.; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Pickard, Benjamin S.; Pimm, Jonathan; Piven, Joseph; Posthuma, Danielle; Potash, James B.; Poustka, Fritz; Propping, Peter; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J.; Quinn, Emma M.; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rehnström, Karola; Reif, Andreas; Ribasés, Marta; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Roeder, Kathryn; Roeyers, Herbert; Rossin, Lizzy; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rouleau, Guy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rujescu, Dan; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Santangelo, Susan L.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Schachar, Russell; Schalling, Martin; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Scheftner, William A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schumacher, Johannes; Schwarz, Markus; Scolnick, Edward; Scott, Laura J.; Shi, Jianxin; Shilling, Paul D.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Slager, Susan L.; Smalley, Susan L.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Erin N.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; St. Clair, David; State, Matthew; Steffens, Michael; Steinhausen, Hans Christoph; Strauss, John S.; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Sutcliffe, James S.; Szatmari, Peter; Szelinger, Szabocls; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thompson, Robert C.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Tozzi, Federica; Treutlein, Jens; Uhr, Manfred; Van Den Oord, Edwin J C G; Van Grootheest, Gerard; Van Os, Jim; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vincent, John B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Watson, Stanley J.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Werge, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Nigel; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Witt, Stephanie H.; Xu, Wei; Young, Allan H.; Yu, Timothy W.; Zammit, Stanley; Zandi, Peter P.; Zhang, Peng; Zitman, Frans G.; Zöllner, Sebastian; Devlin, Bernie; Kelsoe, John R.; Sklar, Pamela; Daly, Mark J.; O'donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nicholas; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Wray, Naomi R.

In: Nature Genetics, Vol. 45, No. 9, 09.2013, p. 984-994.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lee, SH, Ripke, S, Neale, BM, Faraone, SV, Purcell, SM, Perlis, RH, Mowry, BJ, Thapar, A, Goddard, ME, Witte, JS, Absher, D, Agartz, I, Akil, H, Amin, F, Andreassen, OA, Anjorin, A, Anney, R, Anttila, V, Arking, DE, Asherson, P, Azevedo, MH, Backlund, L, Badner, JA, Bailey, AJ, Banaschewski, T, Barchas, JD, Barnes, MR, Barrett, TB, Bass, N, Battaglia, A, Bauer, M, Bayés, M, Bellivier, F, Bergen, SE, Berrettini, W, Betancur, C, Bettecken, T, Biederman, J, Binder, EB, Black, DW, Blackwood, DHR, Bloss, CS, Boehnke, M, Boomsma, DI, Breen, G, Breuer, R, Bruggeman, R, Cormican, P, Buccola, NG, Buitelaar, JK, Bunney, WE, Buxbaum, JD, Byerley, WF, Byrne, EM, Caesar, S, Cahn, W, Cantor, RM, Casas, M, Chakravarti, A, Chambert, K, Choudhury, K, Cichon, S, Cloninger, CR, Collier, DA, Cook, EH, Coon, H, Cormand, B, Corvin, A, Coryell, WH, Craig, DW, Craig, IW, Crosbie, J, Cuccaro, ML, Curtis, D, Czamara, D, Datta, S, Dawson, G, Day, R, De Geus, EJ, Degenhardt, F, Djurovic, S, Donohoe, GJ, Doyle, AE, Duan, J, Dudbridge, F, Duketis, E, Ebstein, RP, Edenberg, H, Elia, J, Ennis, S, Etain, B, Fanous, A, Farmer, AE, Ferrier, IN, Flickinger, M, Fombonne, E, Foroud, T, Frank, J, Franke, B, Fraser, C, Freedman, R, Freimer, NB, Freitag, CM, Friedl, M, Frisén, L, Gallagher, L, Gejman, PV, Georgieva, L, Gershon, ES, Geschwind, DH, Giegling, I, Gill, M, Gordon, SD, Gordon-Smith, K, Green, EK, Greenwood, TA, Grice, DE, Gross, M, Grozeva, D, Guan, W, Gurling, H, De Haan, L, Haines, JL, Hakonarson, H, Hallmayer, J, Hamilton, SP, Hamshere, ML, Hansen, TF, Hartmann, AM, Hautzinger, M, Heath, AC, Henders, AK, Herms, S, Hickie, IB, Hipolito, M, Hoefels, S, Holmans, PA, Holsboer, F, Hoogendijk, WJ, Hottenga, JJ, Hultman, CM, Hus, V, Ingason, A, Ising, M, Jamain, S, Jones, EG, Jones, I, Jones, L, Tzeng, JY, Kähler, AK, Kahn, RS, Kandaswamy, R, Keller, MC, Kennedy, JL, Kenny, E, Kent, L, Kim, Y, Kirov, GK, Klauck, SM, Klei, L, Knowles, JA, Kohli, MA, Koller, DL, Konte, B, Korszun, A, Krabbendam, L, Krasucki, R, Kuntsi, J, Kwan, P, Landén, M, Långström, N, Lathrop, M, Lawrence, J, Lawson, WB, Leboyer, M, Ledbetter, DH, Lee, PH, Lencz, T, Lesch, KP, Levinson, DF, Lewis, CM, Li, J, Lichtenstein, P, Lieberman, JA, Lin, DY, Linszen, DH, Liu, C, Lohoff, FW, Loo, SK, Lord, C, Lowe, JK, Lucae, S, Macintyre, DJ, Madden, PAF, Maestrini, E, Magnusson, PKE, Mahon, PB, Maier, W, Malhotra, AK, Mane, SM, Martin, CL, Martin, NG, Mattheisen, M, Matthews, K, Mattingsdal, M, Mccarroll, SA, Mcghee, KA, Mcgough, JJ, Mcgrath, PJ, Mcguffin, P, Mcinnis, MG, Mcintosh, A, Mckinney, R, Mclean, AW, Mcmahon, FJ, Mcmahon, WM, Mcquillin, A, Medeiros, H, Medland, SE, Meier, S, Melle, I, Meng, F, Meyer, J, Middeldorp, CM, Middleton, L, Milanova, V, Miranda, A, Monaco, AP, Montgomery, GW, Moran, JL, Moreno-De-Luca, D, Morken, G, Morris, DW, Morrow, EM, Moskvina, V, Muglia, P, Mühleisen, TW, Muir, WJ, Müller-Myhsok, B, Murtha, M, Myers, RM, Myin-Germeys, I, Neale, MC, Nelson, SF, Nievergelt, CM, Nikolov, I, Nimgaonkar, V, Nolen, WA, Nöthen, MM, Nurnberger, J, Nwulia, EA, Nyholt, DR, O'dushlaine, C, Oades, RD, Olincy, A, Oliveira, G, Olsen, L, Ophoff, RA, Osby, U, Owen, MJ, Palotie, A, Parr, JR, Paterson, AD, Pato, CN, Pato, MT, Penninx, BW, Pergadia, ML, Pericak-Vance, MA, Pickard, BS, Pimm, J, Piven, J, Posthuma, D, Potash, JB, Poustka, F, Propping, P, Puri, V, Quested, DJ, Quinn, EM, Ramos-Quiroga, JA, Rasmussen, HB, Raychaudhuri, S, Rehnström, K, Reif, A, Ribasés, M, Rice, JP, Rietschel, M, Roeder, K, Roeyers, H, Rossin, L, Rothenberger, A, Rouleau, G, Ruderfer, D, Rujescu, D, Sanders, AR, Sanders, SJ, Santangelo, SL, Sergeant, JA, Schachar, R, Schalling, M, Schatzberg, AF, Scheftner, WA, Schellenberg, GD, Scherer, SW, Schork, NJ, Schulze, TG, Schumacher, J, Schwarz, M, Scolnick, E, Scott, LJ, Shi, J, Shilling, PD, Shyn, SI, Silverman, JM, Slager, SL, Smalley, SL, Smit, JH, Smith, EN, Sonuga-Barke, EJS, St. Clair, D, State, M, Steffens, M, Steinhausen, HC, Strauss, JS, Strohmaier, J, Stroup, TS, Sutcliffe, JS, Szatmari, P, Szelinger, S, Thirumalai, S, Thompson, RC, Todorov, AA, Tozzi, F, Treutlein, J, Uhr, M, Van Den Oord, EJCG, Van Grootheest, G, Van Os, J, Vicente, AM, Vieland, VJ, Vincent, JB, Visscher, PM, Walsh, CA, Wassink, TH, Watson, SJ, Weissman, MM, Werge, T, Wienker, TF, Wijsman, EM, Willemsen, G, Williams, N, Willsey, AJ, Witt, SH, Xu, W, Young, AH, Yu, TW, Zammit, S, Zandi, PP, Zhang, P, Zitman, FG, Zöllner, S, Devlin, B, Kelsoe, JR, Sklar, P, Daly, MJ, O'donovan, MC, Craddock, N, Sullivan, PF, Smoller, JW, Kendler, KS & Wray, NR 2013, 'Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs', Nature Genetics, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 984-994. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2711
Lee SH, Ripke S, Neale BM, Faraone SV, Purcell SM, Perlis RH et al. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs. Nature Genetics. 2013 Sep;45(9):984-994. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2711
Lee, S. Hong ; Ripke, Stephan ; Neale, Benjamin M. ; Faraone, Stephen V. ; Purcell, Shaun M. ; Perlis, Roy H. ; Mowry, Bryan J. ; Thapar, Anita ; Goddard, Michael E. ; Witte, John S. ; Absher, Devin ; Agartz, Ingrid ; Akil, Huda ; Amin, Farooq ; Andreassen, Ole A. ; Anjorin, Adebayo ; Anney, Richard ; Anttila, Verneri ; Arking, Dan E. ; Asherson, Philip ; Azevedo, Maria H. ; Backlund, Lena ; Badner, Judith A. ; Bailey, Anthony J. ; Banaschewski, Tobias ; Barchas, Jack D. ; Barnes, Michael R. ; Barrett, Thomas B. ; Bass, Nicholas ; Battaglia, Agatino ; Bauer, Michael ; Bayés, Mònica ; Bellivier, Frank ; Bergen, Sarah E. ; Berrettini, Wade ; Betancur, Catalina ; Bettecken, Thomas ; Biederman, Joseph ; Binder, Elisabeth B. ; Black, Donald W. ; Blackwood, Douglas H R ; Bloss, Cinnamon S. ; Boehnke, Michael ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Breen, Gerome ; Breuer, René ; Bruggeman, Richard ; Cormican, Paul ; Buccola, Nancy G. ; Buitelaar, Jan K. ; Bunney, William E. ; Buxbaum, Joseph D. ; Byerley, William F. ; Byrne, Enda M. ; Caesar, Sian ; Cahn, Wiepke ; Cantor, Rita M. ; Casas, Miguel ; Chakravarti, Aravinda ; Chambert, Kimberly ; Choudhury, Khalid ; Cichon, Sven ; Cloninger, C. Robert ; Collier, David A. ; Cook, Edwin H. ; Coon, Hilary ; Cormand, Bru ; Corvin, Aiden ; Coryell, William H. ; Craig, David W. ; Craig, Ian W. ; Crosbie, Jennifer ; Cuccaro, Michael L. ; Curtis, David ; Czamara, Darina ; Datta, Susmita ; Dawson, Geraldine ; Day, Richard ; De Geus, Eco J. ; Degenhardt, Franziska ; Djurovic, Srdjan ; Donohoe, Gary J. ; Doyle, Alysa E. ; Duan, Jubao ; Dudbridge, Frank ; Duketis, Eftichia ; Ebstein, Richard P. ; Edenberg, Howard ; Elia, Josephine ; Ennis, Sean ; Etain, Bruno ; Fanous, Ayman ; Farmer, Anne E. ; Ferrier, I. Nicol ; Flickinger, Matthew ; Fombonne, Eric ; Foroud, Tatiana ; Frank, Josef ; Franke, Barbara ; Fraser, Christine ; Freedman, Robert ; Freimer, Nelson B. ; Freitag, Christine M. ; Friedl, Marion ; Frisén, Louise ; Gallagher, Louise ; Gejman, Pablo V. ; Georgieva, Lyudmila ; Gershon, Elliot S. ; Geschwind, Daniel H. ; Giegling, Ina ; Gill, Michael ; Gordon, Scott D. ; Gordon-Smith, Katherine ; Green, Elaine K. ; Greenwood, Tiffany A. ; Grice, Dorothy E. ; Gross, Magdalena ; Grozeva, Detelina ; Guan, Weihua ; Gurling, Hugh ; De Haan, Lieuwe ; Haines, Jonathan L. ; Hakonarson, Hakon ; Hallmayer, Joachim ; Hamilton, Steven P. ; Hamshere, Marian L. ; Hansen, Thomas F. ; Hartmann, Annette M. ; Hautzinger, Martin ; Heath, Andrew C. ; Henders, Anjali K. ; Herms, Stefan ; Hickie, Ian B. ; Hipolito, Maria ; Hoefels, Susanne ; Holmans, Peter A. ; Holsboer, Florian ; Hoogendijk, Witte J. ; Hottenga, Jouke Jan ; Hultman, Christina M. ; Hus, Vanessa ; Ingason, Andrés ; Ising, Marcus ; Jamain, Stéphane ; Jones, Edward G. ; Jones, Ian ; Jones, Lisa ; Tzeng, Jung Ying ; Kähler, Anna K. ; Kahn, René S. ; Kandaswamy, Radhika ; Keller, Matthew C. ; Kennedy, James L. ; Kenny, Elaine ; Kent, Lindsey ; Kim, Yunjung ; Kirov, George K. ; Klauck, Sabine M. ; Klei, Lambertus ; Knowles, James A. ; Kohli, Martin A. ; Koller, Daniel L. ; Konte, Bettina ; Korszun, Ania ; Krabbendam, Lydia ; Krasucki, Robert ; Kuntsi, Jonna ; Kwan, Phoenix ; Landén, Mikael ; Långström, Niklas ; Lathrop, Mark ; Lawrence, Jacob ; Lawson, William B. ; Leboyer, Marion ; Ledbetter, David H. ; Lee, Phil H. ; Lencz, Todd ; Lesch, Klaus Peter ; Levinson, Douglas F. ; Lewis, Cathryn M. ; Li, Jun ; Lichtenstein, Paul ; Lieberman, Jeffrey A. ; Lin, Dan Yu ; Linszen, Don H. ; Liu, Chunyu ; Lohoff, Falk W. ; Loo, Sandra K. ; Lord, Catherine ; Lowe, Jennifer K. ; Lucae, Susanne ; Macintyre, Donald J. ; Madden, Pamela A F ; Maestrini, Elena ; Magnusson, Patrik K E ; Mahon, Pamela B. ; Maier, Wolfgang ; Malhotra, Anil K. ; Mane, Shrikant M. ; Martin, Christa L. ; Martin, Nicholas G. ; Mattheisen, Manuel ; Matthews, Keith ; Mattingsdal, Morten ; Mccarroll, Steven A. ; Mcghee, Kevin A. ; Mcgough, James J. ; Mcgrath, Patrick J. ; Mcguffin, Peter ; Mcinnis, Melvin G. ; Mcintosh, Andrew ; Mckinney, Rebecca ; Mclean, Alan W. ; Mcmahon, Francis J. ; Mcmahon, William M. ; Mcquillin, Andrew ; Medeiros, Helena ; Medland, Sarah E. ; Meier, Sandra ; Melle, Ingrid ; Meng, Fan ; Meyer, Jobst ; Middeldorp, Christel M. ; Middleton, Lefkos ; Milanova, Vihra ; Miranda, Ana ; Monaco, Anthony P. ; Montgomery, Grant W. ; Moran, Jennifer L. ; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel ; Morken, Gunnar ; Morris, Derek W. ; Morrow, Eric M. ; Moskvina, Valentina ; Muglia, Pierandrea ; Mühleisen, Thomas W. ; Muir, Walter J. ; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram ; Murtha, Michael ; Myers, Richard M. ; Myin-Germeys, Inez ; Neale, Michael C. ; Nelson, Stan F. ; Nievergelt, Caroline M. ; Nikolov, Ivan ; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit ; Nolen, Willem A. ; Nöthen, Markus M. ; Nurnberger, John ; Nwulia, Evaristus A. ; Nyholt, Dale R. ; O'dushlaine, Colm ; Oades, Robert D. ; Olincy, Ann ; Oliveira, Guiomar ; Olsen, Line ; Ophoff, Roel A. ; Osby, Urban ; Owen, Michael J. ; Palotie, Aarno ; Parr, Jeremy R. ; Paterson, Andrew D. ; Pato, Carlos N. ; Pato, Michele T. ; Penninx, Brenda W. ; Pergadia, Michele L. ; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A. ; Pickard, Benjamin S. ; Pimm, Jonathan ; Piven, Joseph ; Posthuma, Danielle ; Potash, James B. ; Poustka, Fritz ; Propping, Peter ; Puri, Vinay ; Quested, Digby J. ; Quinn, Emma M. ; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni ; Rasmussen, Henrik B. ; Raychaudhuri, Soumya ; Rehnström, Karola ; Reif, Andreas ; Ribasés, Marta ; Rice, John P. ; Rietschel, Marcella ; Roeder, Kathryn ; Roeyers, Herbert ; Rossin, Lizzy ; Rothenberger, Aribert ; Rouleau, Guy ; Ruderfer, Douglas ; Rujescu, Dan ; Sanders, Alan R. ; Sanders, Stephan J. ; Santangelo, Susan L. ; Sergeant, Joseph A. ; Schachar, Russell ; Schalling, Martin ; Schatzberg, Alan F. ; Scheftner, William A. ; Schellenberg, Gerard D. ; Scherer, Stephen W. ; Schork, Nicholas J. ; Schulze, Thomas G. ; Schumacher, Johannes ; Schwarz, Markus ; Scolnick, Edward ; Scott, Laura J. ; Shi, Jianxin ; Shilling, Paul D. ; Shyn, Stanley I. ; Silverman, Jeremy M. ; Slager, Susan L. ; Smalley, Susan L. ; Smit, Johannes H. ; Smith, Erin N. ; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S ; St. Clair, David ; State, Matthew ; Steffens, Michael ; Steinhausen, Hans Christoph ; Strauss, John S. ; Strohmaier, Jana ; Stroup, T. Scott ; Sutcliffe, James S. ; Szatmari, Peter ; Szelinger, Szabocls ; Thirumalai, Srinivasa ; Thompson, Robert C. ; Todorov, Alexandre A. ; Tozzi, Federica ; Treutlein, Jens ; Uhr, Manfred ; Van Den Oord, Edwin J C G ; Van Grootheest, Gerard ; Van Os, Jim ; Vicente, Astrid M. ; Vieland, Veronica J. ; Vincent, John B. ; Visscher, Peter M. ; Walsh, Christopher A. ; Wassink, Thomas H. ; Watson, Stanley J. ; Weissman, Myrna M. ; Werge, Thomas ; Wienker, Thomas F. ; Wijsman, Ellen M. ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Williams, Nigel ; Willsey, A. Jeremy ; Witt, Stephanie H. ; Xu, Wei ; Young, Allan H. ; Yu, Timothy W. ; Zammit, Stanley ; Zandi, Peter P. ; Zhang, Peng ; Zitman, Frans G. ; Zöllner, Sebastian ; Devlin, Bernie ; Kelsoe, John R. ; Sklar, Pamela ; Daly, Mark J. ; O'donovan, Michael C. ; Craddock, Nicholas ; Sullivan, Patrick F. ; Smoller, Jordan W. ; Kendler, Kenneth S. ; Wray, Naomi R. / Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs. In: Nature Genetics. 2013 ; Vol. 45, No. 9. pp. 984-994.
@article{527864e9eb2e47c187aa78bb4b714bac,
title = "Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs",
abstract = "Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17-29{\%} of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohn's disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders.",
author = "Lee, {S. Hong} and Stephan Ripke and Neale, {Benjamin M.} and Faraone, {Stephen V.} and Purcell, {Shaun M.} and Perlis, {Roy H.} and Mowry, {Bryan J.} and Anita Thapar and Goddard, {Michael E.} and Witte, {John S.} and Devin Absher and Ingrid Agartz and Huda Akil and Farooq Amin and Andreassen, {Ole A.} and Adebayo Anjorin and Richard Anney and Verneri Anttila and Arking, {Dan E.} and Philip Asherson and Azevedo, {Maria H.} and Lena Backlund and Badner, {Judith A.} and Bailey, {Anthony J.} and Tobias Banaschewski and Barchas, {Jack D.} and Barnes, {Michael R.} and Barrett, {Thomas B.} and Nicholas Bass and Agatino Battaglia and Michael Bauer and M{\`o}nica Bay{\'e}s and Frank Bellivier and Bergen, {Sarah E.} and Wade Berrettini and Catalina Betancur and Thomas Bettecken and Joseph Biederman and Binder, {Elisabeth B.} and Black, {Donald W.} and Blackwood, {Douglas H R} and Bloss, {Cinnamon S.} and Michael Boehnke and Boomsma, {Dorret I.} and Gerome Breen and Ren{\'e} Breuer and Richard Bruggeman and Paul Cormican and Buccola, {Nancy G.} and Buitelaar, {Jan K.} and Bunney, {William E.} and Buxbaum, {Joseph D.} and Byerley, {William F.} and Byrne, {Enda M.} and Sian Caesar and Wiepke Cahn and Cantor, {Rita M.} and Miguel Casas and Aravinda Chakravarti and Kimberly Chambert and Khalid Choudhury and Sven Cichon and Cloninger, {C. Robert} and Collier, {David A.} and Cook, {Edwin H.} and Hilary Coon and Bru Cormand and Aiden Corvin and Coryell, {William H.} and Craig, {David W.} and Craig, {Ian W.} and Jennifer Crosbie and Cuccaro, {Michael L.} and David Curtis and Darina Czamara and Susmita Datta and Geraldine Dawson and Richard Day and {De Geus}, {Eco J.} and Franziska Degenhardt and Srdjan Djurovic and Donohoe, {Gary J.} and Doyle, {Alysa E.} and Jubao Duan and Frank Dudbridge and Eftichia Duketis and Ebstein, {Richard P.} and Howard Edenberg and Josephine Elia and Sean Ennis and Bruno Etain and Ayman Fanous and Farmer, {Anne E.} and Ferrier, {I. Nicol} and Matthew Flickinger and Eric Fombonne and Tatiana Foroud and Josef Frank and Barbara Franke and Christine Fraser and Robert Freedman and Freimer, {Nelson B.} and Freitag, {Christine M.} and Marion Friedl and Louise Fris{\'e}n and Louise Gallagher and Gejman, {Pablo V.} and Lyudmila Georgieva and Gershon, {Elliot S.} and Geschwind, {Daniel H.} and Ina Giegling and Michael Gill and Gordon, {Scott D.} and Katherine Gordon-Smith and Green, {Elaine K.} and Greenwood, {Tiffany A.} and Grice, {Dorothy E.} and Magdalena Gross and Detelina Grozeva and Weihua Guan and Hugh Gurling and {De Haan}, Lieuwe and Haines, {Jonathan L.} and Hakon Hakonarson and Joachim Hallmayer and Hamilton, {Steven P.} and Hamshere, {Marian L.} and Hansen, {Thomas F.} and Hartmann, {Annette M.} and Martin Hautzinger and Heath, {Andrew C.} and Henders, {Anjali K.} and Stefan Herms and Hickie, {Ian B.} and Maria Hipolito and Susanne Hoefels and Holmans, {Peter A.} and Florian Holsboer and Hoogendijk, {Witte J.} and Hottenga, {Jouke Jan} and Hultman, {Christina M.} and Vanessa Hus and Andr{\'e}s Ingason and Marcus Ising and St{\'e}phane Jamain and Jones, {Edward G.} and Ian Jones and Lisa Jones and Tzeng, {Jung Ying} and K{\"a}hler, {Anna K.} and Kahn, {Ren{\'e} S.} and Radhika Kandaswamy and Keller, {Matthew C.} and Kennedy, {James L.} and Elaine Kenny and Lindsey Kent and Yunjung Kim and Kirov, {George K.} and Klauck, {Sabine M.} and Lambertus Klei and Knowles, {James A.} and Kohli, {Martin A.} and Koller, {Daniel L.} and Bettina Konte and Ania Korszun and Lydia Krabbendam and Robert Krasucki and Jonna Kuntsi and Phoenix Kwan and Mikael Land{\'e}n and Niklas L{\aa}ngstr{\"o}m and Mark Lathrop and Jacob Lawrence and Lawson, {William B.} and Marion Leboyer and Ledbetter, {David H.} and Lee, {Phil H.} and Todd Lencz and Lesch, {Klaus Peter} and Levinson, {Douglas F.} and Lewis, {Cathryn M.} and Jun Li and Paul Lichtenstein and Lieberman, {Jeffrey A.} and Lin, {Dan Yu} and Linszen, {Don H.} and Chunyu Liu and Lohoff, {Falk W.} and Loo, {Sandra K.} and Catherine Lord and Lowe, {Jennifer K.} and Susanne Lucae and Macintyre, {Donald J.} and Madden, {Pamela A F} and Elena Maestrini and Magnusson, {Patrik K E} and Mahon, {Pamela B.} and Wolfgang Maier and Malhotra, {Anil K.} and Mane, {Shrikant M.} and Martin, {Christa L.} and Martin, {Nicholas G.} and Manuel Mattheisen and Keith Matthews and Morten Mattingsdal and Mccarroll, {Steven A.} and Mcghee, {Kevin A.} and Mcgough, {James J.} and Mcgrath, {Patrick J.} and Peter Mcguffin and Mcinnis, {Melvin G.} and Andrew Mcintosh and Rebecca Mckinney and Mclean, {Alan W.} and Mcmahon, {Francis J.} and Mcmahon, {William M.} and Andrew Mcquillin and Helena Medeiros and Medland, {Sarah E.} and Sandra Meier and Ingrid Melle and Fan Meng and Jobst Meyer and Middeldorp, {Christel M.} and Lefkos Middleton and Vihra Milanova and Ana Miranda and Monaco, {Anthony P.} and Montgomery, {Grant W.} and Moran, {Jennifer L.} and Daniel Moreno-De-Luca and Gunnar Morken and Morris, {Derek W.} and Morrow, {Eric M.} and Valentina Moskvina and Pierandrea Muglia and M{\"u}hleisen, {Thomas W.} and Muir, {Walter J.} and Bertram M{\"u}ller-Myhsok and Michael Murtha and Myers, {Richard M.} and Inez Myin-Germeys and Neale, {Michael C.} and Nelson, {Stan F.} and Nievergelt, {Caroline M.} and Ivan Nikolov and Vishwajit Nimgaonkar and Nolen, {Willem A.} and N{\"o}then, {Markus M.} and John Nurnberger and Nwulia, {Evaristus A.} and Nyholt, {Dale R.} and Colm O'dushlaine and Oades, {Robert D.} and Ann Olincy and Guiomar Oliveira and Line Olsen and Ophoff, {Roel A.} and Urban Osby and Owen, {Michael J.} and Aarno Palotie and Parr, {Jeremy R.} and Paterson, {Andrew D.} and Pato, {Carlos N.} and Pato, {Michele T.} and Penninx, {Brenda W.} and Pergadia, {Michele L.} and Pericak-Vance, {Margaret A.} and Pickard, {Benjamin S.} and Jonathan Pimm and Joseph Piven and Danielle Posthuma and Potash, {James B.} and Fritz Poustka and Peter Propping and Vinay Puri and Quested, {Digby J.} and Quinn, {Emma M.} and Ramos-Quiroga, {Josep Antoni} and Rasmussen, {Henrik B.} and Soumya Raychaudhuri and Karola Rehnstr{\"o}m and Andreas Reif and Marta Ribas{\'e}s and Rice, {John P.} and Marcella Rietschel and Kathryn Roeder and Herbert Roeyers and Lizzy Rossin and Aribert Rothenberger and Guy Rouleau and Douglas Ruderfer and Dan Rujescu and Sanders, {Alan R.} and Sanders, {Stephan J.} and Santangelo, {Susan L.} and Sergeant, {Joseph A.} and Russell Schachar and Martin Schalling and Schatzberg, {Alan F.} and Scheftner, {William A.} and Schellenberg, {Gerard D.} and Scherer, {Stephen W.} and Schork, {Nicholas J.} and Schulze, {Thomas G.} and Johannes Schumacher and Markus Schwarz and Edward Scolnick and Scott, {Laura J.} and Jianxin Shi and Shilling, {Paul D.} and Shyn, {Stanley I.} and Silverman, {Jeremy M.} and Slager, {Susan L.} and Smalley, {Susan L.} and Smit, {Johannes H.} and Smith, {Erin N.} and Sonuga-Barke, {Edmund J S} and {St. Clair}, David and Matthew State and Michael Steffens and Steinhausen, {Hans Christoph} and Strauss, {John S.} and Jana Strohmaier and Stroup, {T. Scott} and Sutcliffe, {James S.} and Peter Szatmari and Szabocls Szelinger and Srinivasa Thirumalai and Thompson, {Robert C.} and Todorov, {Alexandre A.} and Federica Tozzi and Jens Treutlein and Manfred Uhr and {Van Den Oord}, {Edwin J C G} and {Van Grootheest}, Gerard and {Van Os}, Jim and Vicente, {Astrid M.} and Vieland, {Veronica J.} and Vincent, {John B.} and Visscher, {Peter M.} and Walsh, {Christopher A.} and Wassink, {Thomas H.} and Watson, {Stanley J.} and Weissman, {Myrna M.} and Thomas Werge and Wienker, {Thomas F.} and Wijsman, {Ellen M.} and Gonneke Willemsen and Nigel Williams and Willsey, {A. Jeremy} and Witt, {Stephanie H.} and Wei Xu and Young, {Allan H.} and Yu, {Timothy W.} and Stanley Zammit and Zandi, {Peter P.} and Peng Zhang and Zitman, {Frans G.} and Sebastian Z{\"o}llner and Bernie Devlin and Kelsoe, {John R.} and Pamela Sklar and Daly, {Mark J.} and O'donovan, {Michael C.} and Nicholas Craddock and Sullivan, {Patrick F.} and Smoller, {Jordan W.} and Kendler, {Kenneth S.} and Wray, {Naomi R.}",
year = "2013",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1038/ng.2711",
language = "English",
volume = "45",
pages = "984--994",
journal = "Nature Genetics",
issn = "1061-4036",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

AU - Lee, S. Hong

AU - Ripke, Stephan

AU - Neale, Benjamin M.

AU - Faraone, Stephen V.

AU - Purcell, Shaun M.

AU - Perlis, Roy H.

AU - Mowry, Bryan J.

AU - Thapar, Anita

AU - Goddard, Michael E.

AU - Witte, John S.

AU - Absher, Devin

AU - Agartz, Ingrid

AU - Akil, Huda

AU - Amin, Farooq

AU - Andreassen, Ole A.

AU - Anjorin, Adebayo

AU - Anney, Richard

AU - Anttila, Verneri

AU - Arking, Dan E.

AU - Asherson, Philip

AU - Azevedo, Maria H.

AU - Backlund, Lena

AU - Badner, Judith A.

AU - Bailey, Anthony J.

AU - Banaschewski, Tobias

AU - Barchas, Jack D.

AU - Barnes, Michael R.

AU - Barrett, Thomas B.

AU - Bass, Nicholas

AU - Battaglia, Agatino

AU - Bauer, Michael

AU - Bayés, Mònica

AU - Bellivier, Frank

AU - Bergen, Sarah E.

AU - Berrettini, Wade

AU - Betancur, Catalina

AU - Bettecken, Thomas

AU - Biederman, Joseph

AU - Binder, Elisabeth B.

AU - Black, Donald W.

AU - Blackwood, Douglas H R

AU - Bloss, Cinnamon S.

AU - Boehnke, Michael

AU - Boomsma, Dorret I.

AU - Breen, Gerome

AU - Breuer, René

AU - Bruggeman, Richard

AU - Cormican, Paul

AU - Buccola, Nancy G.

AU - Buitelaar, Jan K.

AU - Bunney, William E.

AU - Buxbaum, Joseph D.

AU - Byerley, William F.

AU - Byrne, Enda M.

AU - Caesar, Sian

AU - Cahn, Wiepke

AU - Cantor, Rita M.

AU - Casas, Miguel

AU - Chakravarti, Aravinda

AU - Chambert, Kimberly

AU - Choudhury, Khalid

AU - Cichon, Sven

AU - Cloninger, C. Robert

AU - Collier, David A.

AU - Cook, Edwin H.

AU - Coon, Hilary

AU - Cormand, Bru

AU - Corvin, Aiden

AU - Coryell, William H.

AU - Craig, David W.

AU - Craig, Ian W.

AU - Crosbie, Jennifer

AU - Cuccaro, Michael L.

AU - Curtis, David

AU - Czamara, Darina

AU - Datta, Susmita

AU - Dawson, Geraldine

AU - Day, Richard

AU - De Geus, Eco J.

AU - Degenhardt, Franziska

AU - Djurovic, Srdjan

AU - Donohoe, Gary J.

AU - Doyle, Alysa E.

AU - Duan, Jubao

AU - Dudbridge, Frank

AU - Duketis, Eftichia

AU - Ebstein, Richard P.

AU - Edenberg, Howard

AU - Elia, Josephine

AU - Ennis, Sean

AU - Etain, Bruno

AU - Fanous, Ayman

AU - Farmer, Anne E.

AU - Ferrier, I. Nicol

AU - Flickinger, Matthew

AU - Fombonne, Eric

AU - Foroud, Tatiana

AU - Frank, Josef

AU - Franke, Barbara

AU - Fraser, Christine

AU - Freedman, Robert

AU - Freimer, Nelson B.

AU - Freitag, Christine M.

AU - Friedl, Marion

AU - Frisén, Louise

AU - Gallagher, Louise

AU - Gejman, Pablo V.

AU - Georgieva, Lyudmila

AU - Gershon, Elliot S.

AU - Geschwind, Daniel H.

AU - Giegling, Ina

AU - Gill, Michael

AU - Gordon, Scott D.

AU - Gordon-Smith, Katherine

AU - Green, Elaine K.

AU - Greenwood, Tiffany A.

AU - Grice, Dorothy E.

AU - Gross, Magdalena

AU - Grozeva, Detelina

AU - Guan, Weihua

AU - Gurling, Hugh

AU - De Haan, Lieuwe

AU - Haines, Jonathan L.

AU - Hakonarson, Hakon

AU - Hallmayer, Joachim

AU - Hamilton, Steven P.

AU - Hamshere, Marian L.

AU - Hansen, Thomas F.

AU - Hartmann, Annette M.

AU - Hautzinger, Martin

AU - Heath, Andrew C.

AU - Henders, Anjali K.

AU - Herms, Stefan

AU - Hickie, Ian B.

AU - Hipolito, Maria

AU - Hoefels, Susanne

AU - Holmans, Peter A.

AU - Holsboer, Florian

AU - Hoogendijk, Witte J.

AU - Hottenga, Jouke Jan

AU - Hultman, Christina M.

AU - Hus, Vanessa

AU - Ingason, Andrés

AU - Ising, Marcus

AU - Jamain, Stéphane

AU - Jones, Edward G.

AU - Jones, Ian

AU - Jones, Lisa

AU - Tzeng, Jung Ying

AU - Kähler, Anna K.

AU - Kahn, René S.

AU - Kandaswamy, Radhika

AU - Keller, Matthew C.

AU - Kennedy, James L.

AU - Kenny, Elaine

AU - Kent, Lindsey

AU - Kim, Yunjung

AU - Kirov, George K.

AU - Klauck, Sabine M.

AU - Klei, Lambertus

AU - Knowles, James A.

AU - Kohli, Martin A.

AU - Koller, Daniel L.

AU - Konte, Bettina

AU - Korszun, Ania

AU - Krabbendam, Lydia

AU - Krasucki, Robert

AU - Kuntsi, Jonna

AU - Kwan, Phoenix

AU - Landén, Mikael

AU - Långström, Niklas

AU - Lathrop, Mark

AU - Lawrence, Jacob

AU - Lawson, William B.

AU - Leboyer, Marion

AU - Ledbetter, David H.

AU - Lee, Phil H.

AU - Lencz, Todd

AU - Lesch, Klaus Peter

AU - Levinson, Douglas F.

AU - Lewis, Cathryn M.

AU - Li, Jun

AU - Lichtenstein, Paul

AU - Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

AU - Lin, Dan Yu

AU - Linszen, Don H.

AU - Liu, Chunyu

AU - Lohoff, Falk W.

AU - Loo, Sandra K.

AU - Lord, Catherine

AU - Lowe, Jennifer K.

AU - Lucae, Susanne

AU - Macintyre, Donald J.

AU - Madden, Pamela A F

AU - Maestrini, Elena

AU - Magnusson, Patrik K E

AU - Mahon, Pamela B.

AU - Maier, Wolfgang

AU - Malhotra, Anil K.

AU - Mane, Shrikant M.

AU - Martin, Christa L.

AU - Martin, Nicholas G.

AU - Mattheisen, Manuel

AU - Matthews, Keith

AU - Mattingsdal, Morten

AU - Mccarroll, Steven A.

AU - Mcghee, Kevin A.

AU - Mcgough, James J.

AU - Mcgrath, Patrick J.

AU - Mcguffin, Peter

AU - Mcinnis, Melvin G.

AU - Mcintosh, Andrew

AU - Mckinney, Rebecca

AU - Mclean, Alan W.

AU - Mcmahon, Francis J.

AU - Mcmahon, William M.

AU - Mcquillin, Andrew

AU - Medeiros, Helena

AU - Medland, Sarah E.

AU - Meier, Sandra

AU - Melle, Ingrid

AU - Meng, Fan

AU - Meyer, Jobst

AU - Middeldorp, Christel M.

AU - Middleton, Lefkos

AU - Milanova, Vihra

AU - Miranda, Ana

AU - Monaco, Anthony P.

AU - Montgomery, Grant W.

AU - Moran, Jennifer L.

AU - Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel

AU - Morken, Gunnar

AU - Morris, Derek W.

AU - Morrow, Eric M.

AU - Moskvina, Valentina

AU - Muglia, Pierandrea

AU - Mühleisen, Thomas W.

AU - Muir, Walter J.

AU - Müller-Myhsok, Bertram

AU - Murtha, Michael

AU - Myers, Richard M.

AU - Myin-Germeys, Inez

AU - Neale, Michael C.

AU - Nelson, Stan F.

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PY - 2013/9

Y1 - 2013/9

N2 - Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17-29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohn's disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders.

AB - Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17-29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohn's disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84883465830&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84883465830&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/ng.2711

DO - 10.1038/ng.2711

M3 - Article

VL - 45

SP - 984

EP - 994

JO - Nature Genetics

JF - Nature Genetics

SN - 1061-4036

IS - 9

ER -