Gingival evaluation of the pediatric cardiac patient

Erez Nosrati, George J. Eckert, Michael J. Kowolik, Jason G. Ho, Marcus S. Schamberger, Joan E. Kowolik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Purpose: Children with congenital cardiovascular diseases (CCDs) who suffer from dental diseases have an increased risk of infective endocarditis. In the light of recent evidence, oral inflammatory diseases may also increase the severity of their cardiovascular condition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gingival status of children with congenital cardiovascular diseases in comparison to healthy children. Methods: Fifty 7- to 13-year-old children were included. The test group comprised 25 CCD children subdivided into three groups: (1) unrepaired ventricular septal defect; (2) aortic valve stenosis; and (3) coarctation of the aorta. The control group consisted of 25 healthy age- and gender-matched children. Gingivitis, plaque, calculus, and recession were measured on six sites per tooth on 12 teeth. Results: CCD children had significantly more gingivitis (P<.001), plaque (P<.001), recession (P>.02), and calculus (P<.001) than controls. Among the CCDs groups, no statistically significant differences were found for gingivitis, plaque, or recession. Conclusions: Children with congenital cardiovascular diseases had a higher prevalence of periodontal disease, evidenced by gingivitis, plaque, calculus, and recession. These children should be evaluated periodontally and their oral health monitored on a 3-month basis to prevent disease development, benefit cardiovascular condition, prevent endocarditis, and improve quality and longevity of life.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)456-462
Number of pages7
JournalPediatric dentistry
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2013


  • Children with special health care needs
  • Congenital cardiovascular diseases
  • Congenital heart defects
  • Gingivitis
  • Periodontal diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

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