Glucocorticoids induce osteocyte apoptosis by blocking focal adhesion kinase-mediated survival

Evidence for inside-out signaling leading to anoikis

Lilian Plotkin, Stavros C. Manolagas, Teresita Bellido

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78 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Bone fragility induced by chronic glucocorticoid excess is due, at least in part, to induction of osteocyte apoptosis through direct actions on these cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which glucocorticoids shorten osteocyte life span has remained heretofore unknown. We report that apoptosis of osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells induced by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone is abolished by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486, but not by inhibition of protein or RNA synthesis. Dexamethasone-induced apoptosis is preceded by a decrease in the number of cytoplasmic processes, an indicator of cell detachment. In addition, the focal adhesion kinase FAK prevents dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, whereas the FAK-related kinase Pyk2 increases the basal levels of apoptosis. Dexamethasone-induced apoptosis is also prevented in cells expressing kinase-deficient or phosphorylation-defective (Y402F) dominant negative mutants of Pyk2. Consistent with the requirement of tyrosine 402, dexamethasone induces rapid Pyk2 phosphorylation in this residue. Moreover, knocking down Pyk2 expression abolishes apoptosis and cell detachment induced by dexamethasone, and transfection with human Pyk2 rescues both responses. Furthermore, induction of apoptosis as well as cell detachment by dexamethasone is abolished by inhibiting the activity of JNK, a recognized downstream target of Pyk2 activation. These results demonstrate that glucocorticoids promote osteocyte apoptosis via a receptor-mediated mechanism that does not require gene transcription and that is mediated by rapid activation of Pyk2 and JNK, followed by inside-out signaling that leads to cell detachment-induced apoptosis or anoikis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24120-24130
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume282
Issue number33
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 17 2007
Externally publishedYes

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Anoikis
Osteocytes
Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Glucocorticoids
Apoptosis
Dexamethasone
Survival
Phosphorylation
Phosphotransferases
Chemical activation
Artificial Cells
Glucocorticoid Receptors
Transcription
Transfection
Tyrosine
Bone
Genes
Cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Glucocorticoids induce osteocyte apoptosis by blocking focal adhesion kinase-mediated survival: Evidence for inside-out signaling leading to anoikis",
abstract = "Bone fragility induced by chronic glucocorticoid excess is due, at least in part, to induction of osteocyte apoptosis through direct actions on these cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which glucocorticoids shorten osteocyte life span has remained heretofore unknown. We report that apoptosis of osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells induced by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone is abolished by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486, but not by inhibition of protein or RNA synthesis. Dexamethasone-induced apoptosis is preceded by a decrease in the number of cytoplasmic processes, an indicator of cell detachment. In addition, the focal adhesion kinase FAK prevents dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, whereas the FAK-related kinase Pyk2 increases the basal levels of apoptosis. Dexamethasone-induced apoptosis is also prevented in cells expressing kinase-deficient or phosphorylation-defective (Y402F) dominant negative mutants of Pyk2. Consistent with the requirement of tyrosine 402, dexamethasone induces rapid Pyk2 phosphorylation in this residue. Moreover, knocking down Pyk2 expression abolishes apoptosis and cell detachment induced by dexamethasone, and transfection with human Pyk2 rescues both responses. Furthermore, induction of apoptosis as well as cell detachment by dexamethasone is abolished by inhibiting the activity of JNK, a recognized downstream target of Pyk2 activation. These results demonstrate that glucocorticoids promote osteocyte apoptosis via a receptor-mediated mechanism that does not require gene transcription and that is mediated by rapid activation of Pyk2 and JNK, followed by inside-out signaling that leads to cell detachment-induced apoptosis or anoikis.",
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N2 - Bone fragility induced by chronic glucocorticoid excess is due, at least in part, to induction of osteocyte apoptosis through direct actions on these cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which glucocorticoids shorten osteocyte life span has remained heretofore unknown. We report that apoptosis of osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells induced by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone is abolished by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486, but not by inhibition of protein or RNA synthesis. Dexamethasone-induced apoptosis is preceded by a decrease in the number of cytoplasmic processes, an indicator of cell detachment. In addition, the focal adhesion kinase FAK prevents dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, whereas the FAK-related kinase Pyk2 increases the basal levels of apoptosis. Dexamethasone-induced apoptosis is also prevented in cells expressing kinase-deficient or phosphorylation-defective (Y402F) dominant negative mutants of Pyk2. Consistent with the requirement of tyrosine 402, dexamethasone induces rapid Pyk2 phosphorylation in this residue. Moreover, knocking down Pyk2 expression abolishes apoptosis and cell detachment induced by dexamethasone, and transfection with human Pyk2 rescues both responses. Furthermore, induction of apoptosis as well as cell detachment by dexamethasone is abolished by inhibiting the activity of JNK, a recognized downstream target of Pyk2 activation. These results demonstrate that glucocorticoids promote osteocyte apoptosis via a receptor-mediated mechanism that does not require gene transcription and that is mediated by rapid activation of Pyk2 and JNK, followed by inside-out signaling that leads to cell detachment-induced apoptosis or anoikis.

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