Glucose and amino acid turnover in untreated gestational diabetes

Dawn M. Zimmer, Alan M. Golichowski, Cheryl A. Karn, Ginger Brechtel, Alain D. Baron, Scott Denne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE - Although gestational diabetes affects as many as 3% of all pregnant women, specific aspects of glucose and protein metabolism in this population have not been clearly delineated. We tested the hypothesis that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) results in increased glucose production and proteolysis during fasting. RESEARCH AND DESIGN AND METHODS - Using tracer isotope infusions, the rate of appearance (R(a)) of glucose, leucine, phenylalanine and tyrosine, phenylalanine hydroxylation, leucine oxidation, and urea nitrogen excretion were determined after an overnight fast in 10 GDM subjects, within 2 weeks of diagnosis before initiation of treatment, and in a matched control group of nine healthy nondiabetic pregnant women. RESULTS - Fasting glucose R(a) was similar in GDM patients and control subjects (GDM, 12.8 ± 1.1 vs. control subjects, 12.8 ± 0.9 μmol · kg-1 · min-1). Leucine and phenylalanine R(a) (reflecting proteolysis) also were not different between GDM patients and control subjects (GDM leucine R(a), 1.28 ± 14 vs. control subjects, 124 ± 5; phenylalanine R(a) GDM, 35 ± 4 vs. control subjects, 40 ± 2 μmol · kg-1 · h-1). Furthermore, leucine oxidation and phenylalanine hydroxylation were not increased in GDM subjects; urea nitrogen excretion was actually lower in GDM patients. However, fasting insulin concentrations were significantly elevated in GDM subjects (GDM, 165 ± 35 vs. control subjects, 30 ± 5 pmol/l; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic glucose release and whole-body proteolysis in GDM patients were remarkably similar to matched pregnant control subjects. This was achieved with insulin concentrations three- to fivefold higher than normal, suggesting significant insulin resistance for both glucose and protein metabolism in GDM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)591-596
Number of pages6
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume19
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1996

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Gestational Diabetes
Amino Acids
Glucose
Phenylalanine
Leucine
Proteolysis
Fasting
Hydroxylation
Urea
Pregnant Women
Research Design
Nitrogen
Insulin
Isotopes
Tyrosine
Insulin Resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Zimmer, D. M., Golichowski, A. M., Karn, C. A., Brechtel, G., Baron, A. D., & Denne, S. (1996). Glucose and amino acid turnover in untreated gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care, 19(6), 591-596.

Glucose and amino acid turnover in untreated gestational diabetes. / Zimmer, Dawn M.; Golichowski, Alan M.; Karn, Cheryl A.; Brechtel, Ginger; Baron, Alain D.; Denne, Scott.

In: Diabetes Care, Vol. 19, No. 6, 06.1996, p. 591-596.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zimmer, DM, Golichowski, AM, Karn, CA, Brechtel, G, Baron, AD & Denne, S 1996, 'Glucose and amino acid turnover in untreated gestational diabetes', Diabetes Care, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 591-596.
Zimmer DM, Golichowski AM, Karn CA, Brechtel G, Baron AD, Denne S. Glucose and amino acid turnover in untreated gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1996 Jun;19(6):591-596.
Zimmer, Dawn M. ; Golichowski, Alan M. ; Karn, Cheryl A. ; Brechtel, Ginger ; Baron, Alain D. ; Denne, Scott. / Glucose and amino acid turnover in untreated gestational diabetes. In: Diabetes Care. 1996 ; Vol. 19, No. 6. pp. 591-596.
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