Glycogen synthase kinases. Classification of a rabbit liver casein and glycogen synthase kinase (casein kinase-1) as a distinct enzyme

Z. Ahmad, M. Camici, Anna De Paoli-Roach, Peter Roach

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Abstract

A protein kinase, able to phosphorylate casein, phosvitin, and glycogen synthase, was purified approximately 9000-fold from rabbit liver, and appeared analogous to an enzyme studied by Itarte and Huang (Itarte, E., and Huang, K.-P. (1 979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4052-4057). This enzyme, designated here casein kinase-1, was shown to be a distinct glycogen synthase kinase and in particular to be different from the protein kinase GSK-3 (Hemmings, B.A., Yellowlees, D., Kernohan, J.C., and Cohen, P. (1981) Eur. J. Biochem. 119, 443-451). Casein kinase-1 had native molecular weight of 30,000 as judged by gel filtration. The enzyme phosphorylated β-casein A or B better than κ-Casein or α(s1)-casein, and modified only serine residues in β-casein B and phosvitin. The apparent K(m) for ATP was 11 μM, and GTP was ineffective as a phosphoryl donor. The phosphorylation of glycogen synthase by casein kinase-1 was inhibited by glycogen, half-maximally at 2 mg/ml, and by heparin, half-maximally at 0.5-1.0 μg/ml, but was unaffected by Ca2+ and/or calmodulin, or by cyclic AMP. Phosphorylation of muscle glycogen synthase proceeded to a stoichiometry of at least 6 phosphates/subunit with reduction in the ± glucose-6-P activity ratio to less than 0.4. Phosphate was introduced in both a COOH-terminal CNBr fragment (CB-2) as well as a NH2-terminal fragment (CB-1). At a phosphorylation stoichiometry of 6 phosphates/subunit, 84% of the phosphate was associated with CB-2 and 6.5% with CB-1. The remainder of the phosphate was introduced into another CNBr fragment of apparent molecular weight 16,500. Phosphorylation by casein kinase-1 correlated with reduced electrophoretic mobilities, as analyzed on polyacrylamide gels in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, of the intact glycogen synthase subunit, as well as the CNBr fragments CB-1 and CB-2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3420-3428
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume259
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1984

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Casein Kinase I
Glycogen Synthase Kinases
Liver Glycogen
Caseins
Glycogen Synthase
Phosphorylation
Liver
Phosphates
Rabbits
Phosvitin
Enzymes
Stoichiometry
Protein Kinases
Molecular Weight
Molecular weight
Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
Electrophoretic mobility
Calmodulin
Guanosine Triphosphate
Glycogen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Glycogen synthase kinases. Classification of a rabbit liver casein and glycogen synthase kinase (casein kinase-1) as a distinct enzyme",
abstract = "A protein kinase, able to phosphorylate casein, phosvitin, and glycogen synthase, was purified approximately 9000-fold from rabbit liver, and appeared analogous to an enzyme studied by Itarte and Huang (Itarte, E., and Huang, K.-P. (1 979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4052-4057). This enzyme, designated here casein kinase-1, was shown to be a distinct glycogen synthase kinase and in particular to be different from the protein kinase GSK-3 (Hemmings, B.A., Yellowlees, D., Kernohan, J.C., and Cohen, P. (1981) Eur. J. Biochem. 119, 443-451). Casein kinase-1 had native molecular weight of 30,000 as judged by gel filtration. The enzyme phosphorylated β-casein A or B better than κ-Casein or α(s1)-casein, and modified only serine residues in β-casein B and phosvitin. The apparent K(m) for ATP was 11 μM, and GTP was ineffective as a phosphoryl donor. The phosphorylation of glycogen synthase by casein kinase-1 was inhibited by glycogen, half-maximally at 2 mg/ml, and by heparin, half-maximally at 0.5-1.0 μg/ml, but was unaffected by Ca2+ and/or calmodulin, or by cyclic AMP. Phosphorylation of muscle glycogen synthase proceeded to a stoichiometry of at least 6 phosphates/subunit with reduction in the ± glucose-6-P activity ratio to less than 0.4. Phosphate was introduced in both a COOH-terminal CNBr fragment (CB-2) as well as a NH2-terminal fragment (CB-1). At a phosphorylation stoichiometry of 6 phosphates/subunit, 84{\%} of the phosphate was associated with CB-2 and 6.5{\%} with CB-1. The remainder of the phosphate was introduced into another CNBr fragment of apparent molecular weight 16,500. Phosphorylation by casein kinase-1 correlated with reduced electrophoretic mobilities, as analyzed on polyacrylamide gels in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, of the intact glycogen synthase subunit, as well as the CNBr fragments CB-1 and CB-2.",
author = "Z. Ahmad and M. Camici and {De Paoli-Roach}, Anna and Peter Roach",
year = "1984",
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volume = "259",
pages = "3420--3428",
journal = "Journal of Biological Chemistry",
issn = "0021-9258",
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T1 - Glycogen synthase kinases. Classification of a rabbit liver casein and glycogen synthase kinase (casein kinase-1) as a distinct enzyme

AU - Ahmad, Z.

AU - Camici, M.

AU - De Paoli-Roach, Anna

AU - Roach, Peter

PY - 1984

Y1 - 1984

N2 - A protein kinase, able to phosphorylate casein, phosvitin, and glycogen synthase, was purified approximately 9000-fold from rabbit liver, and appeared analogous to an enzyme studied by Itarte and Huang (Itarte, E., and Huang, K.-P. (1 979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4052-4057). This enzyme, designated here casein kinase-1, was shown to be a distinct glycogen synthase kinase and in particular to be different from the protein kinase GSK-3 (Hemmings, B.A., Yellowlees, D., Kernohan, J.C., and Cohen, P. (1981) Eur. J. Biochem. 119, 443-451). Casein kinase-1 had native molecular weight of 30,000 as judged by gel filtration. The enzyme phosphorylated β-casein A or B better than κ-Casein or α(s1)-casein, and modified only serine residues in β-casein B and phosvitin. The apparent K(m) for ATP was 11 μM, and GTP was ineffective as a phosphoryl donor. The phosphorylation of glycogen synthase by casein kinase-1 was inhibited by glycogen, half-maximally at 2 mg/ml, and by heparin, half-maximally at 0.5-1.0 μg/ml, but was unaffected by Ca2+ and/or calmodulin, or by cyclic AMP. Phosphorylation of muscle glycogen synthase proceeded to a stoichiometry of at least 6 phosphates/subunit with reduction in the ± glucose-6-P activity ratio to less than 0.4. Phosphate was introduced in both a COOH-terminal CNBr fragment (CB-2) as well as a NH2-terminal fragment (CB-1). At a phosphorylation stoichiometry of 6 phosphates/subunit, 84% of the phosphate was associated with CB-2 and 6.5% with CB-1. The remainder of the phosphate was introduced into another CNBr fragment of apparent molecular weight 16,500. Phosphorylation by casein kinase-1 correlated with reduced electrophoretic mobilities, as analyzed on polyacrylamide gels in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, of the intact glycogen synthase subunit, as well as the CNBr fragments CB-1 and CB-2.

AB - A protein kinase, able to phosphorylate casein, phosvitin, and glycogen synthase, was purified approximately 9000-fold from rabbit liver, and appeared analogous to an enzyme studied by Itarte and Huang (Itarte, E., and Huang, K.-P. (1 979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4052-4057). This enzyme, designated here casein kinase-1, was shown to be a distinct glycogen synthase kinase and in particular to be different from the protein kinase GSK-3 (Hemmings, B.A., Yellowlees, D., Kernohan, J.C., and Cohen, P. (1981) Eur. J. Biochem. 119, 443-451). Casein kinase-1 had native molecular weight of 30,000 as judged by gel filtration. The enzyme phosphorylated β-casein A or B better than κ-Casein or α(s1)-casein, and modified only serine residues in β-casein B and phosvitin. The apparent K(m) for ATP was 11 μM, and GTP was ineffective as a phosphoryl donor. The phosphorylation of glycogen synthase by casein kinase-1 was inhibited by glycogen, half-maximally at 2 mg/ml, and by heparin, half-maximally at 0.5-1.0 μg/ml, but was unaffected by Ca2+ and/or calmodulin, or by cyclic AMP. Phosphorylation of muscle glycogen synthase proceeded to a stoichiometry of at least 6 phosphates/subunit with reduction in the ± glucose-6-P activity ratio to less than 0.4. Phosphate was introduced in both a COOH-terminal CNBr fragment (CB-2) as well as a NH2-terminal fragment (CB-1). At a phosphorylation stoichiometry of 6 phosphates/subunit, 84% of the phosphate was associated with CB-2 and 6.5% with CB-1. The remainder of the phosphate was introduced into another CNBr fragment of apparent molecular weight 16,500. Phosphorylation by casein kinase-1 correlated with reduced electrophoretic mobilities, as analyzed on polyacrylamide gels in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, of the intact glycogen synthase subunit, as well as the CNBr fragments CB-1 and CB-2.

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