Gonadal Steroids in Regeneration and Repair of Neuromuscular Systems

Eileen M. Foecking, Keith N. Fargo, Todd J. Brown, Dale R. Sengelaub, Kathryn J. Jones

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

5 Scopus citations


After injury or insult to a motor system, gonadal steroids play a key role in regeneration and repair of motor function primarily through interactions with their intracellular receptors. This chapter highlights the protective and therapeutic effects that gonadal steroids have on neuronal functioning, ranging from motoneuron survival to enhancement of axonal and dendritic growth, as well as peripheral maintenance of bone and muscle. The systemic actions of gonadal steroids are truly multifaceted, modifying the entire synaptic response as well as targeting multiple tissues. We discuss the effects of gonadal steroids in both the central and the peripheral nervous systems ranging from their role in establishing important neuromuscular sex differences and their ability to protect against motoneuron death and disease, to triggering a regenerative response from both axons and dendrites, to enhancing bone growth and muscle mass after injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationNeural Regeneration
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9780128018347
ISBN (Print)9780128017326
StatePublished - Feb 6 2015


  • Axon regeneration
  • Bone
  • Dendritic regeneration
  • Gonadal steroids
  • Motoneuron
  • Muscle
  • Nerve
  • Testosterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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    Foecking, E. M., Fargo, K. N., Brown, T. J., Sengelaub, D. R., & Jones, K. J. (2015). Gonadal Steroids in Regeneration and Repair of Neuromuscular Systems. In Neural Regeneration (pp. 129-150). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801732-6.00008-2