Gonadoblastoma occurring in a normal girl or woman has been confused with ovarian mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumor (MGC-SCST) due to a lack of knowledge that the former occurs occasionally in a normal woman or girl. In this article, we develop histological criteria that facilitate the distinction of gonadoblastoma in an individual with a normal karyotype and no evidence of a disorder of sex development from ovarian MGC-SCST. We reviewed the histological findings of gonadoblastoma occurring in normal individuals and compared them to cases of ovarian MGC-SCST in our files. The histological findings of gonadoblastoma differ substantially from those of ovarian MGC-SCST. Importantly, gonadoblastoma contains two types of transformed germ cells, some histologically benign and others premalignant, whereas MGC-SCST contains only a single type, typically premalignant in the ovary and benign in the testis. Furthermore, degenerative changes of hyalinization and calcification are common in gonadoblastoma, whereas they are extremely rare in MGC-SCST. Although the great majority of cases of gonadoblastoma occur in an individual with a disorder of sex development and an abnormal karyotype, a substantial number arise in a normal woman or girl with no evidence of a disorder of sex development. In the latter circumstance, it is important to distinguish gonadoblastoma from ovarian MGC-SCST. It is very likely that those gonadoblastomas arising in a normal individual develop through a different molecular pathway than the ones that occur in the dysgenetic gonads of an individual with a disorder of sex development.
- Mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumor
- Tumors composed of germ cells and sex cord elements
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Cell Biology