Hepatic granulomas are often encountered on liver biopsy and may represent a primary hepatic process, a manifestation of a systemic illness, or an innocent finding of no clinical relevance. Hepatic granulomas are a unique inflammatory response that may be idiopathic or may be a response to a bacterial, fungal, viral, or parasitic infection; a manifestation of drug-induced liver injury; or a manifestation of underlying malignancy. When granulomas are found on liver biopsy, clinicians must correlate the histologic findings with historical and clinical data to help provide an accurate diagnosis and guide management. Therapy may be warranted, either directly for the granulomatous inflammation of the liver or for a systemic process. For some patients, observation may be the most appropriate form of management.
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