Higher Monocyte Count is Associated with 30-Day Case Fatality in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Jason Mackey, Ashley D. Blatsioris, Chandan Saha, Elizabeth A.S. Moser, Ravan J.L. Carter, Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol, Thomas J. Leipzig, Linda S. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: Previous studies have suggested that elevated neutrophils, monocytes, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) may be associated with poor outcomes in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We sought to determine whether white blood cell (WBC) types were independently associated with poor outcome in ICH in a large cohort. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of primary ICH at two academic centers. Cases were identified via ICD-9 code and verified via physician review. We included only those patients with WBC types obtained within 24 h of ICH onset. Results: We identified 593 patients with primary ICH and WBC differentials in the first 24 h. Independent factors (OR, 95% CI) associated with 30-day case fatality were age > 80 (2.4 (1.4, 4.2)), p = 0.0023; NIHSS greater than median (3.9 (2.4, 6.3)), p < 0.0001; ICH volume quartiles (Q1: ref, Q2: 1.5 (0.7, 3.0), Q3: 3.2 (1.6, 6.6), Q4: 11.9 (5.3, 26.4)), p < 0.0001; non-lobar location (3.3 (1.9, 5.9)), p ≤ 0.0001; IVH (2.3 (1.4, 3.6)), p = 0.0005, monocytes greater than median (1.6 (1.0, 2.4)), p = 0.0457, and anticoagulant use (3.2 (1.8, 5.6)), p < 0.0001. Elevated NLR was not associated with higher case fatality. Conclusions: We found that elevated monocytes were independently associated with 30-day case fatality. Future studies will investigate whether there are subgroups of ICH patients, including those with particular blood or imaging biomarkers, in which WBC types might help predict poor outcome and provide targets for intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNeurocritical Care
StateAccepted/In press - 2020


  • Inflammation
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Leukocytes
  • Outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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