Background HIV-infected patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Impaired endothelial function is an early risk factor for CVD in the general population. It is presumed that HIV infection is associated with impaired endothelial function, but results have been inconsistent. Objectives Our objectives were to determine the relationships between HIV infection, virologic suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART), in vivo measures of conduit artery and microvascular endothelial function, and circulating biomarkers of pathways associated with CVD. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of three prospectively enrolled groups from a single center: 28 were HIV-infected and virologically-suppressed on a regimen of FTC/TDF/ EFV (HIV+ART+), 44 were HIV-infected but not on ART (HIV+ART-), and 39 were HIV-uninfected healthy volunteers (HIV-) matched to the HIV+ART- group for age, sex, smoking status, and height. None had diabetes, uncontrolled hypertension, known CVD, or other pro-inflammatory condition. Flow mediated dilation (FMD), nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NTGMD), reactive hyperemia velocity time integral (RHVTI), and FMD/RHVTI of the brachial artery were measured, as well as circulating biomarkers of systemic inflammation, metabolism, oxidative stress, and endothelial activation. Results No significant differences were found amongst the three groups in FMD (P = 0.46), NTGMD (P = 0.42), RHVTI (P = 0.17), and FMD/RHVTI (P = 0.22) in unadjusted comparisons. Adjusted ANOVA models which included brachial artery diameter, demographics, and conventional CVD risk factors did not appreciably change these findings. In pairwise comparisons, the HIV+ART- group had significantly higher soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II, soluble CD163, β-2 microglobulin, interferon-γ- induced protein-10, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 compared to the other two groups (all p<0.05). Correlates of endothelial function differed between study groups. Conclusion Although untreated HIV infection was associated with elevated levels of several biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial activation, we were unable to demonstrate differences in measures of conduit artery and microvascular endothelial function in this study population.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)